- Recent families that have left welfare are less likely to have jobs than prior TANF “leavers".
- Poverty rates among families that leave TANF are very high and remain high over time.
- Families that lose TANF cash assistance because of sanctions or time limits are more likely to experience hardship than families that leave for other reasons (such as getting a job).
- Many families receiving TANF include members who are disabled or have other serious health problems that have a negative impact on their employment and earnings.
- Half of the very poor families with children who are eligible for TANF assistance do not receive it. The share of very poor families who do not receive TANF is increasing.
- The expansion of child care assistance programs in the last half of the 1990s increased employment and full-time work among former TANF recipients.
- Provisions in the 1996 welfare law that made many legal immigrants ineligible for various public benefits have led to increased hardship among immigrant families.