States Are Using Much-Needed Temporary Flexibility in SNAP to Respond to COVID-19 Challenges
Since March, states have been using temporary SNAP (food stamp) flexibility to provide emergency benefit supplements, maintain benefits to households with children missing school meals, and ease program administration during the pandemic. These options have allowed states to deliver more food assistance to struggling families, help manage rising and ongoing administrative demands, and ensure that participants maintain much-needed benefits.
How to Find Out if You Can Get Help from SNAP
If you would like help from SNAP, contact your local human services office. The staff there will work with you to find out if you qualify. You may also find information and referrals by dialing 211 in most states.
- Find the phone number for your state’s office
- Find your state’s SNAP website
- Find a local food bank if you need food immediately
Notes: SNAP is often referred to by its former name, the Food Stamp Program. Your state may use a different name.
SNAP has special rules following natural disasters.
The administrative flexibility has also facilitated growth in SNAP participation to meet increased need and ensure that families experiencing hardship can quickly get benefits to buy food. The government funding bill enacted in October allows states to extend many of these flexibilities and use them without requesting USDA approval, which is especially important given that the Agriculture Department (USDA) had limited or ceased approvals of some of these key flexibilities in recent months. The extension of these options facilitates states’ ability to continue to provide SNAP in a timely manner and help families struggling with hardship.
The far-reaching health and economic effects of COVID-19 and widespread business closures to limit its spread have made it even more difficult for many low-income households to afford food, and data have shown a sharp increase in the number of families reporting difficulty affording adequate food and other basic needs. SNAP is essential to helping these families put food on the table.
As we’ve explained, the Families First Coronavirus Response Act provided USDA with authority to let states temporarily modify procedures to make it easier for families to continue participating in or apply for SNAP. And it temporarily suspended, nationwide, SNAP’s three-month time limit on benefits for unemployed adults under age 50 without children in their home. In addition to provisions in the law, USDA has encouraged states to use existing program flexibility. The law also included a temporary boost of emergency supplementary benefits and school meal replacement benefits. Beginning this summer, USDA began to curtail approval for many of the options to modify administrative procedures. But the government funding bill passed October 1 restored most of them; states will likely use these for the rest of 2020 and the first half of 2021.
Benefit Enhancements Still in Effect, Mostly Under Families First
The Families First benefit enhancements that states are still using include options to:
- Increase benefits to meet immediate rising need. Families First provided two ways for states to raise benefits for many SNAP participants and other households experiencing falling income and rising food needs.
Emergency allotment: States can provide many SNAP households with emergency supplementary benefits up to the maximum benefit a household can receive; all states have used this option. SNAP benefits are determined based on a formula that estimates how much income families have available to buy food; SNAP benefits make up the difference between this amount and the maximum benefit, which is based on a USDA estimate of the cost of a nutritionally adequate diet at minimal cost. For example, in 2019, a family of three could receive a maximum benefit of $505 if the state determined they had no income available to purchase food, but the average benefit for a household of three was an estimated $365. About 60 percent of SNAP households ordinarily receive less than the maximum benefit because they have some income available to buy food under benefit calculation rules. In jurisdictions with the emergency allotment in effect, such households get the maximum benefit. (Unfortunately, USDA’s interpretation excluded the lowest-income 40 percent of SNAP households, which already receive the maximum benefit.)
Every state was originally approved to provide these benefits for two months, either March and April or April and May. USDA may approve states to provide these benefits as long as the federal government has declared a public health emergency and the state has issued an emergency or disaster declaration. USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has clarified that states can request additional months of emergency allotments as long as those conditions are met, with states providing up to nine months of these allotments to date (March through November). (States may actually issue these allotments in the next month, as many states began issuing March allotments in April. Many states are approved later in the month for these allotments.) Table 1 below shows the months for which these allotments have been approved to date.
P-EBT: The Act allowed states to submit requests to provide meal replacement benefits through SNAP, known as P-EBT, for households with children who attended a school that was closed in the spring of 2020 for at least five days and who otherwise would have received free or reduced-price meals. Though many states needed time to overcome implementation challenges, all states (except for Guam) selected the option, and issued these benefits by mid-summer. These programs so far have replaced meals lost during the 2019-2020 school year and benefits have been issued retroactively for periods when schools were closed during that time. Families First allowed states to provide these benefits through fiscal year 2020 (which ended September 30, 2020). (Table 2 shows both the states that have adopted it in the 2019-2020 school year and those approved for August and September 2020 under the Families First authority.)
The recent government funding bill extended and expanded P-EBT. This funding law extends the program through September 2021, allows schools to provide benefits to children when schools are operating with a mix of virtual and in-person classes, extends the program to low-income young children in child care settings, and expands the program to territories such as Puerto Rico that the program originally excluded. States are now preparing plans and USDA released guidance in November. In December, Massachusetts became the first state to be approved to issue benefits in the remainder of the 2020-2021 school year for students learning virtually or in a hybrid model during that time. We will update Table 2 as more states are approved. P-EBT doesn’t require a state public health or emergency declaration, but it does require a national public health emergency declaration.
For more detail on states’ implementation of P-EBT for spring 2020 benefits, see “CBPP/FRAC P-EBT Documentation Project Shows How States Implemented a New Program to Provide Food Benefits to Up to 30 Million Low-Income School Children.”
While not from the Families First Act, during the spring USDA also expanded access to a key flexibility:
- Pilot an online purchasing program. The 2014 farm bill created a pilot program for states to test the feasibility and outcomes resulting from allowing retailers to accept SNAP benefits for online food purchases. In 2019, New York became the first state to launch a pilot, joined by Washington State in January 2020 and three other states in early March 2020 (Alabama, Iowa, and Oregon). Since the crisis has hit, more states have been approved for expedited online purchasing pilots, and now most states have such a program, shown in Table 2. Online purchasing is limited to state-approved retailers, which in all states include Walmart and/or Amazon, as well as others including ALDI in California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Texas; ShopRite in Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; FreshGrocer in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. This waiver allows individuals receiving SNAP benefits to get the food they require while adhering to social distancing rules. Because these programs are independent of the Families First Act, they are not subject to the same emergency declaration requirements.
Families First Act Operations Waivers (Largely Spring and Summer 2020)
USDA also approved several waivers that Families First allows for states to temporarily adjust their operations to help manage their workloads and help participants gain and maintain access to the program; states are no longer using most of these options, as the government funding bill provided states with more flexibility to implement similar provisions:
- Extend certification periods and adjust reporting requirements. SNAP participants get approved to receive benefits for a certain period of time, called a “certification period.” Every month a portion of SNAP participants ordinarily must submit paperwork and complete an interview to continue receiving benefits when the certification period ends, called the recertification process. Participants must also update or report certain changes in their circumstances at different intervals depending on the state. As Table 3 shows, the vast majority of states waived these requirements or extended deadlines for several months, to preserve participants’ benefits and to streamline administrative work and help deal with rising applications at a time of reduced capacity. States were originally approved for these waivers through May, and most states requested and received extensions of this waiver through June. After originally denying most requests, USDA then approved waivers through August and September for a limited number of states, and approved limited modifications to reporting requirements for households that are renewing benefits. The government funding law enacted October 1 allowed states to return to the more extensive options originally offered (described below), and with greater flexibility, as states no longer had to request waivers from USDA. Table 3 shows states’ last waiver extension under Families First, generally through June 2020, or the option to extend under the government funding law, through June 2021.
- Adapt telephonic signature requirements. Before the crisis, many states had implemented technology to let households apply for SNAP by phone, including using a stored telephonic signature. Current regulations require states to record verbal assent in an audio file to ensure that there is a record of applicants understanding and agreeing to information gathered and used by the state worker. The waiver allows states to take SNAP applications by phone by allowing a state eligibility worker to document the household’s attestation to the collected information on the client’s behalf without requiring a recorded signature. This temporary step has helped states process applications in the current environment where offices are closed and not all clients can access online applications. USDA has also allowed states to extend this waiver through December, as shown in Table 3.
Waive other requirements, such as the application interview, to better manage new applications. In addition to taking steps to ensure participants can continue getting benefits, states have requested waivers to accommodate what in many states has been a dramatic rise in new applications. Given the large increase in unemployment and hardship in recent months that will likely continue, states have seen and will likely continue to see large SNAP application increases. State SNAP agencies have had to manage this rising volume at a time of office closures, staffing shortages, and potential difficulties with a remote work environment. And, given the expiration of additional federal unemployment insurance benefits at the end of July, states may be seeing new surges in applications from those individuals.
Over 40 states took up USDA’s temporary nationwide waiver of the interview at the application or recertification stage in order to ensure that newly eligible households can access food assistance through SNAP and others can stay on, shown in Table 3. SNAP rules require all households to be interviewed either in person or over the telephone, by a state eligibility worker at initial application and usually at least once a year thereafter. This requirement can be an important way for states to gather accurate information and for applicants to have their questions answered, but in the current environment it can be a labor-intensive task that can delay approval. USDA allowed states to dispense with the interview temporarily for many households, originally at both initial application (as long as households provide mandatory verifications, such as of income) and at recertification. As with the waivers to extend certification periods, USDA allowed extensions up through June, and for July and August for some states meeting certain requirements and limited versions for others. USDA had indicated it would largely approve very limited versions of these waivers in September and moving forward, including some adjustments to recertification interviews identified below and in Table 3.
The government funding law, however, allows states to implement the original versions of the waiver that USDA approved for all states in March through June 2021 without requesting USDA approval, and given this increased flexibility, states will likely use those options instead of requesting these waivers. Table 3 shows the states extending this flexibility under the most recent option, either through the Families First Act (through June or in some cases August) or the government funding bill (through June 2021).
Narrow USDA-Approved Waivers Under Families First (Largely Won’t Be Used After Fall 2020)
Beginning in August, USDA limited approvals of many waivers that modified SNAP procedures and began approving states for narrow versions of these waivers, though these waivers are now replaced by the more flexible options included in the government funding law. USDA approved waivers for states, called either “core verification and interview adjustment” or “periodic report flexibility for non-extended recertification cases” waivers, that give states more flexibility to streamline the renewal process for households that are due to renew in coming months, such as limiting the number of households required to complete an interview at recertification. These waivers are not shown in the tables.
Restored Flexibility Under Government Funding Bill (Currently in Effect)
The government funding bill enacted October 1 restored the more expansive versions of the following options and allowed states to implement them without USDA approval. Given that the public health and economic consequences of COVID-19 will likely continue for many months, states will continue to need flexibility to modify processes to effectively manage their caseload. Because these options provide more flexibility to states for the same procedures than the narrower options USDA previously had been approving, states will likely use these options instead of the earlier waivers (both the original Families First Act waivers, approved in the spring, and the narrower waivers USDA approved beginning in August).
These options, shown in Table 3, allow states to:
Continue extending certification periods for households for up to six months for periods expiring up until June 30, 2021 and modify requirements for households to report changes in their circumstances This option is consistent with guidance issued in April, which is more expansive than the limited modifications USDA had been approving for fall 2020.
Use periodic report procedures instead of the more extensive recertification process for households due to recertify through December 31, 2021. SNAP participants are required to provide certain updates about their circumstances at certain intervals; this is a much more streamlined process than the recertification process, which requires an application and interview.
Waive interviews for some new applicants applying and households recertifying through June 30, 2021. Consistent with the original waivers USDA approved, states can continue to approve households for SNAP benefits (or to continue receiving benefits) without an interview, as long as states can verify applicants’ identity and other required items.
Continue to extend two other interview flexibilities through June 30, 2021: not offering a face-to-face interview or grant one upon request, and certifying households with very low income eligible for expedited service to be approved without an interview. These interview flexibilities are also consistent with the original interview waivers USDA approved for states through June.
Other Administrative Options and Waivers
USDA has also approved and extended many other waivers under the Families First Act that temporarily suspended administrative requirements for states, not shown in the tables below.
In addition, USDA has approved waivers to modify aspects of states’ quality control processes. States must independently check the accuracy of household eligibility and benefit levels for a share of their cases each month. The process typically involves an in-person interview with households, often at their home. All states opted to use the Act’s flexibility to conduct quality control interviews by phone instead of in person. USDA approved state extensions of this waiver through June for 49 states, and notified states that they may extend this waiver through December 2020. USDA gave all states and territories participating in SNAP an extension of the deadlines for reporting findings from households that were reviewed in December 2019, or January or February 2020, and recently announced an extension for households selected in June 2020. USDA allowed all states and territories participating in SNAP to cancel reviews for the months of March, April, and May, and the government funding law suspends these reviews for June 2020 through September 2021.
USDA has also denied state waiver requests, some of which USDA has detailed in a letter. For example, over half of states had requested waivers to temporarily suspend the student eligibility rules, which limit SNAP eligibility to college students enrolled at least half time in institutions of higher learning to those who meet certain exemptions, such as those who are working at least 20 hours per week or are participating in federal work study programs. USDA also denied waivers to temporarily adjust other practices, including application processing, quality control, reporting, and other aspects of program rules.
|State Emergency Allotments and Extensions by Month, as of December 23, 2020|
|July (Extension)||August (Extension)||September (Extension)||October (Extension)||November (Extension)||December (Extension)|
|District of Columbia||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X|
|Pandemic EBT and Online Purchasing Pilots, as of December 23, 2020|
|State||Provide benefits for households with children missing school meals in 2019-2020 school year* (P-EBT)||Provide benefits for households with children missing school meals in August-September 2020* (P-EBT)||Provide benefits for households with children missing school meals in 2020-2021 school year (P-EBT)*||Pilot an online purchasing program|
|District of Columbia||X||X||X|
|USDA-Approved SNAP Operations Waivers Under Families First Act and Options Under Government Funding Bill, as of December 23, 2020|
|Listed by last month option or waiver is in effect|
|State||Extend certification periods and adjust periodic reports||Waive initial/ recertification interviews||Waive face-to-face interviews||Postpone expedited interviews||Adapt telephonic signature requirements||Use periodic report procedures to recertify households|
|Alabama||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021|
|Alaska||Aug. 2020||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun.2020||Aug. 2020|
|Arizona||Jun. 2021a||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jan. 2021|
|Arkansas||May 2020||Jan. 2021c||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Oct. 2020|
|California||May 2020||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Dec. 2020|
|Colorado||Jun. 2021b||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jul. 2020|
|Connecticut||Dec. 2020e||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Sep. 2020|
|Delaware||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Dec. 2020|
|District of Columbia||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Oct. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jul. 2020||Dec. 2020d|
|Florida||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2021c||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2021c|
|Georgia||Jan. 2021a||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020|
|Guam||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020|
|Hawai’i||Feb. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Dec. 2020||Dec. 2021|
|Illinois||Feb. 2021||Dec. 2020c||Dec. 2020||Jun. 2020||Dec. 2020|
|Indiana||Jun. 2021||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2021||Aug. 2020|
|Iowa||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2020||May 2020|
|Kansas||Jun. 2020||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020|
|Kentucky||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2021|
|Louisiana||May 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Dec. 2020d|
|Maine||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Aug. 2020|
|Maryland||Jun. 2021b||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Dec. 2021|
|Massachusetts||Jan. 2021a||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jan. 2021||Dec. 2021|
|Michigan||Jun. 2020||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Nov. 2020|
|Minnesota||Feb. 2021||Dec. 2020c||Dec. 2020||Dec. 2020d|
|Mississippi||Jun. 2020||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020|
|Missouri||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2021c||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020|
|Montana||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jul. 2020||Jun. 2020||Dec. 2020d|
|Nebraska||May 2020||May 2020|
|Nevada||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020|
|New Hampshire||Jun. 2020||Oct. 2020|
|New Jersey||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Sep. 2020|
|New Mexico||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021c||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Nov. 2020||Dec. 2021|
|New York||TBDb||Jun. 2021||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2021||Dec. 2020|
|North Carolina||Jun. 2021b||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Dec. 2020|
|North Dakota||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020|
|Ohio||Dec. 2020||Dec. 2020c||Dec. 2020||Jun. 2020||Dec. 2020d|
|Oklahoma||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020|
|Oregon||Dec. 2020a||Jun. 2021||Jul. 2020||Aug. 2020||May 2020||Jun. 2021|
|Pennsylvania||Jun. 2021a||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020||Dec. 2020d|
|Rhode Island||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2020||Dec. 2021|
|South Carolina||Apr. 2021||Apr. 2021||Jun. 2020|
|South Dakota||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020|
|Tennessee||Aug. 2020||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020|
|Texas||Aug. 2020||Mar. 2021c||Jul. 2020||Jun. 2020|
|Vermont||Nov. 2020||May 2020|
|Virgin Islands||Jun. 2021b||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2021||Jun. 2020|
|Virginia||Dec. 2020||Jan. 2021||Jan. 2021||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020|
|Washington||Feb. 2021a||Sep. 2020|
|West Virginia||Jun. 2020||Jun. 2020||Dec. 2020||Jun. 2020||Dec. 2020|
|Wisconsin||Feb. 2021||Jun. 2021|
December 24, 2020
 The original interview waivers included three major adjustments of normal SNAP requirements for state agencies. The waivers allowed states to approve new households without conducting the normally required interview; allowed states not to offer a face-to-face interview or grant one upon request; and allowed states to certify households with very low income eligible for expedited service to be approved without an interview. The original waivers included all three, but some extensions for July and beyond include just some of those components.
 Here is a brief summary of many of these waivers, all of which can be found at Food and Nutrition Service, “SNAP: COVID-19 Waivers by State,” https://www.fns.usda.gov/disaster/pandemic/covid-19/snap-waivers-flexibilities.
USDA has allowed 25 state agencies to temporarily stop pursuing certain claims and not consider related payments delinquent. (When SNAP households receive more benefits than they are eligible for — for example because the SNAP eligibility worker made a mistake, or the household misunderstood the rules or provided incorrect information, either by mistake or intentionally — SNAP state agencies must collect the amount overpaid, unless pursuing the claim is not cost effective.) All of these states have had these waivers extended through June, and some 13 states have received July extensions, with smaller numbers approved for extensions past July. USDA has also approved one state (California) for an extension on submitting data to USDA on claims collection.
At least 23 states have been approved for waivers to extend the timeframe to complete fair hearings, which states are required to provide for SNAP participants to appeal a state decision that affects their participation, such as denying or terminating benefits; these hearings are an important tool for clients to exercise their rights. All of these states have had these waivers extended through June and fewer states were extended through July, August, September, and October.
At least four states have received waivers to extend the timeline for administrative disqualification hearings, which states must provide to determine that an individual has committed an intentional violation of program rules (such as making a false statement), and with fewer states approved past June.
USDA has approved at least five state waivers to temporarily suspend use of the Income and Eligibility Verification System, a database in which states ordinarily must verify certain income and other information.
Three states have received approval to extend the period of time granted to households that have attempted but are unable to provide a Social Security number, and these waivers have been extended through September or October.
At least two states have received approval to delay notices that states must issue to households with multiple EBT card replacement requests.
Three states have received waivers to allow certain community partners who assist SNAP applicants with the application process to sign the application on the client’s behalf after obtaining consent to serve as the client’s authorized representative, and USDA has allowed these extensions through September.
At least four states have been approved to suspend in-person collection of applications and verification documents for August and September.
At least two states have been approved to streamline the process to determine whether individuals are unable to meet certain work requirements. (Though the Families First Coronavirus Response Act suspended the time limit nationwide, states that receive funding to offer a slot in a work or training program to individuals subject to the time limit can still apply the time limit to those individuals unless they have “good cause” for not meeting the requirements. Similarly, states can determine whether an individual has good cause not to comply with more general SNAP work requirements for which they could otherwise be sanctioned. One of the waivers streamlines the process to determine whether individuals subject to the time limit who are offered slots in training programs have good cause, and the other streamlines this good-cause determination for individuals subject to SNAP’s general work requirements.)