Tracking the COVID-19 Recession’s Effects on Food, Housing, and Employment Hardships

Updated

Joblessness remains high and millions report that their households did not get enough to eat or are not caught up on rent payments. We are able to track the extent of this hardship thanks to nearly real-time data from several sources on the ongoing economic crisis.

The impacts of the pandemic and the economic fallout have been widespread, but are particularly prevalent among Black, Latino,[1] Indigenous, and immigrant households. These disproportionate impacts reflect harsh, longstanding inequities — often stemming from structural racism — in education, employment, housing, and health care that the current crisis is exacerbating.

The American Rescue Plan Act, enacted on March 11, is projected to dramatically begin reducing poverty and narrowing disparities by race. Any reduction in hardship, particularly among children, would be a hopeful step for the country. Households with children face especially high hardship rates and considerable evidence suggests that reducing childhood hardship and poverty would yield improvements in education and health, higher productivity and earnings, less incarceration, and other lasting benefits to children and society.

Census Bureau Data Show High Rates of Hardship

The Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey, launched in April 2020, has provided nearly real-time data on how the unprecedented health and economic crisis is affecting the nation. Data from this and other sources, such as unemployment data from Census’ Current Population Survey and the Department of Labor, show that tens of millions of people are out of work and struggling to afford adequate food and pay the rent. The impacts on children are large (see figures 1, 4, and 5).

For more on our methodology and data by state, see tables 1-5 at the end of this document.

Difficulty Getting Enough Food

Data from several sources show a dramatic increase in the number of households struggling to put enough food on the table.[2] Nearly 17 million adults — 8 percent of all adults in the country — reported that their household sometimes or often didn’t have enough to eat in the last seven days, according to Household Pulse Survey data collected April 14-26.

By contrast, 3.4 percent of adults reported their household had “not enough to eat” at some point over the full 12 months of 2019, according to our analysis of a separate Census Bureau survey conducted in December 2019. (Methodological differences between the two surveys explain some, but not all, of the increase.[3]) When asked why, 74 percent said they “couldn’t afford to buy more food,” rather than (or in addition to) non-financial factors such as lack of transportation or safety concerns due to the pandemic.

figure 1

Adults in households with children were likelier to report that the household didn’t get enough to eat: 11 percent, compared to 7 percent for households without children. (See Figure 1.) And 7 to 12 percent of adults with children reported that their children sometimes or often didn’t eat enough in the last seven days because they couldn’t afford it, well above the pre-pandemic figure. Households typically first scale back on food for adults before cutting back on what children have to eat. (The 7-12 percent range reflects the different ways to measure food hardship in the Household Pulse Survey.)

Also, analysis of more detailed data from the Pulse survey collected March 17-29 shows that between 5 and 9 million children live in a household where children didn’t eat enough because the household couldn’t afford it. These figures are approximations; the Pulse Survey was designed to provide data on adult well-being, not precise counts of children.

Black and Latino adults were about three times as likely as white adults to report that their household did not get enough to eat: 14 percent for Black adults and 16 percent for Latino adults, compared to 5 percent of white adults. Adults who identify as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, or as multiracial, taken together,[4] were three times as likely as white adults to report that their household did not get enough to eat, at 15 percent. (See Figure 2.)

Figure 2

Inability to Pay Rent or Mortgage

The Household Pulse data also show that millions are not caught up on their rent or mortgage payments. Unfortunately, there are two concerns with the housing questions. First, the Census Bureau reworded the rent payment question starting with the late-August 2020 survey, making the results non-comparable to earlier weeks of the survey. Second, Census at the same time made the entire survey longer, which led more respondents to skip questions toward the end of the survey, including the housing questions. This “non-response” is higher among groups that are younger, have lower levels of education, and identify as Black or Latino — groups that are more likely to struggle to afford rent, due to longstanding inequities often stemming from structural racism in education, employment, and housing. For these reasons, the Pulse data likely understate the number of people struggling to pay rent.

Even with these issues, however, the data indicate that millions are having difficulty paying rent. An estimated 10[AM10] .7 million adults living in rental housing — 15 percent of adult renters — were not caught up on rent, according to data collected April 14-26.[5] Here, too, renters of color were more likely to report that their household was not caught up on rent: 22 percent of Asian renters, 22 percent of Black renters, and 20 percent of Latino renters said they were not caught up on rent, compared to 9 percent of white renters. The rate was 20 percent for American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and multiracial adults taken together. (See Figure 3.)

figure 3

In addition, 20 percent of renters who are parents or otherwise live with children reported that they were not caught up on rent, compared to 11 percent among adults not living with anyone under age 18. (See Figure 4.)

figure 4

Children in renter households also face high rates of food hardship. Over 1 in 5 children living in rental housing live in a household that didn’t have enough to eat, according to data for March 17-29. And 1 in 3 children living in rental housing live in a household that either isn’t getting enough to eat or is not caught up on rent. (See Figure 5.)

Figure 5

While households that don’t rent their homes but have mortgage payments typically have higher incomes than renters, they, too, can face difficulties, especially if they have lost their jobs or seen their incomes fall significantly. An estimated 7.4 million adults are in a household that is not caught up in its mortgage payment.[6]

Difficulty Covering Household Expenses

Since late August 2020, the Household Pulse Survey has provided data on the overall number of adults struggling to cover usual household expenses such as food, rent or mortgage, car payments, medical expenses, or student loans. Some 60 million adults — 26 percent of all adults in the country — reported it was somewhat or very difficult for their household to cover usual expenses in the past seven days, according to data collected April 14-26.

Adults in households with children were more likely to report difficulty paying for usual expenses: 33 percent, compared to 22 percent for adults without children. Financial hardship can have serious effects on children’s long-term health and education, research shows.[7]

In addition, Latino and Black adults reported difficulty covering expenses at higher rates: 41 percent for each group, compared to 22 percent for Asian adults and 20 percent for white adults. (See Figure 6.) The rate was 36 percent for American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and multiracial adults taken together.

figure 6

An estimated 35 percent of children live in households that have trouble covering usual expenses, according to our analysis of detailed data from the Pulse survey collected March 17-29. They include 49 percent of children in Latino households, 48 percent of children in Black households, 28 percent of children in Asian households, and 26 percent of children in white households. (The Pulse survey asks the race of the adult respondent, not the children.)

Unemployment Is High, With Job Losses Concentrated in Low-Paid Industries

The unemployment rate jumped in April 2020 to a level not seen since the 1930s — and still stood at 6.1 percent in April 2021. Some 9.7 percent of Black workers and 7.9 percent of Latino workers were unemployed in March, compared to 5.3 percent of white workers. Unemployment has also risen faster among workers who were born outside the United States (this includes individuals who are now U.S. citizens) than U.S.-born workers. Changes in unemployment going forward will likely heavily depend on both how well the nation does in controlling the spread of the virus and the steps policymakers take to provide effective stimulus that boosts overall demand for goods and services.

The majority of jobs lost in the crisis have been in industries that pay low average wages, with the lowest-paying industries accounting for 30 percent of all jobs but 56 percent of the jobs lost from February 2020 to April 2021, the latest month of Labor Department employment data. Jobs were down more than twice as much in low-paying industries (8.9 percent) as in medium-wage industries (4.5 percent) and more than three times as much as in high-wage industries (2.4 percent) during this period. (See Figure 7.)

figure 7

Data from the Census Bureau’s basic monthly Current Population Survey released April 7, 2021 provide more detail on unemployed workers and their family members. Some 25 million people either met the official definition of “unemployed” (meaning they actively looked for work in the last four weeks or were on temporary layoff) or lived with an unemployed family member in March. This figure includes over 6 million children.

The official definition of “unemployed” leaves out many workers deprived of pay amid the pandemic, including some 3.7 million workers in March who did not look for work “because of the coronavirus pandemic,” according to the Labor Department. The official definition also omits over 600,000 workers who reported that they had a job but that they were absent from work without pay and lost pay in the last four weeks “because their employer closed or lost business due to the coronavirus pandemic,” we calculate.

When family members are considered, some 35 million people in March, including close to 9 million children, lived in a family where at least one adult did not have paid work in the last week because of unemployment or the pandemic, we estimate.

State-by-State Food, Housing, and Employment Hardship Data

Data by state show that hardship is widespread. The following tables provide state-level data on:

  • the share of adults reporting that their household didn’t have enough to eat (Table 1);
  • the share of adults saying children in their household were not eating enough because they couldn’t afford enough (Table 1);
  • the share of adults not caught up on rent (Table 2);
  • the share of adults saying their household had difficulty paying for their usual expenses (Table 3); and
  • the three-month moving average unemployment rate and recent jobless claim data (Table 4).

For data from the Pulse survey we average data collected March 3-15 and March 17-29 to improve the accuracy of the state estimates.

Differences in Pulse hardship rates between states may reflect sampling error, so we suggest not drawing strong conclusions from modest differences between states. The data do show, however, that high levels of hardship are widespread across the country.

Difficulty Getting Enough Food

The Pulse survey asks adult respondents if their household did not have enough to eat and if children in the household were not eating enough because the household couldn’t afford it.

TABLE 1
High Shares of Households Report Difficulty Getting Enough Food

Among adults; data collected March 3-29.

How to read this table: In the United States, some 20 million adults reported that their household sometimes or often didn’t have enough to eat in the last seven days. This represents 10 percent of all adults in the country. Some 11 million adults living with children reported that “the children were not eating enough because we just couldn’t afford enough food.” This represents 14 percent of adults living with children.
  Adults Reporting That Household Didn’t Have Enough to Eat Adults Reporting That Children in Household Weren’t Eating
Enough Because Household Couldn’t Afford Enough
State Number As a Percent of Adults Number As a Percent of Adults Living with Children
United States 20,649,000 10% 11,033,000 14%
Alabama 321,000 11% 122,000 10%
Alaska 45,000 10% 25,000 14%
Arizona 418,000 9% 209,000 12%
Arkansas 252,000 13% 125,000 15%
California 2,669,000 11% 1,709,000 17%
Colorado 337,000 8% 140,000 10%
Connecticut 190,000 8% 76,000 9%
Delaware 58,000 9% 27,000 10%
District of Columbia 43,000 9% 24,000 17%
Florida 1,426,000 10% 788,000 16%
Georgia 742,000 11% 394,000 14%
Hawai’i 69,000 7% 64,000 15%
Idaho 93,000 8% 41,000 8%
Illinois 805,000 10% 470,000 15%
Indiana 444,000 10% 144,000 9%
Iowa 166,000 8% 89,000 12%
Kansas 141,000 8% 73,000 11%
Kentucky 311,000 11% 138,000 13%
Louisiana 387,000 14% 208,000 19%
Maine 59,000 6% 21,000 7%
Maryland 393,000 10% 246,000 15%
Massachusetts 287,000 6% 113,000 7%
Michigan 537,000 8% 213,000 10%
Minnesota 181,000 5% 91,000 7%
Mississippi 238,000 13% 150,000 19%
Missouri 329,000 8% 96,000 7%
Montana 46,000 6% 24,000 9%
Nebraska 116,000 10% 57,000 12%
Nevada 229,000 11% 145,000 17%
New Hampshire 68,000 7% 26,000 8%
New Jersey 571,000 10% 307,000 14%
New Mexico 134,000 10% 80,000 15%
New York 1,504,000 12% 879,000 21%
North Carolina 500,000 8% 219,000 9%
North Dakota 36,000 7% 27,000 12%
Ohio 760,000 10% 316,000 11%
Oklahoma 320,000 13% 141,000 14%
Oregon 239,000 8% 109,000 10%
Pennsylvania 743,000 9% 285,000 10%
Rhode Island 77,000 11% 49,000 21%
South Carolina 300,000 9% 159,000 13%
South Dakota 43,000 8% 26,000 11%
Tennessee 383,000 9% 166,000 11%
Texas 2,229,000 12% 1,493,000 18%
Utah 120,000 6% 75,000 8%
Vermont 25,000 6% 15,000 12%
Virginia 487,000 9% 286,000 14%
Washington 362,000 7% 167,000 9%
West Virginia 125,000 11% 35,000 9%
Wisconsin 256,000 7% 139,000 11%
Wyoming 33,000 9% 15,000 11%

Note: Figures are averages of data collected March 3-15 and March 17-29. In the latest data, collected March 17-29, 8.8 percent of all adults reported that their household “sometimes” or “often” in the last seven days had “not enough to eat,” while 12.4 percent of adults living with children reported that the children sometimes or often in the last seven days were “not eating enough because we just couldn't afford enough food.” As recommended by the Census Bureau, percentages exclude persons not replying to the question.   

Source: Calculated by Center on Budget and Policy Priorities from Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey published tables “food2,” “food3,” and “food5,” for survey weeks 26 and 27, https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/household-pulse-survey/data.html 

 

Not Caught Up on Rent

Table 2 shows the estimated number of adults whose household was not caught up on rent by state. The Census Bureau reworded the Pulse survey’s rent payment question starting with the late-August 2020 survey, so these rent hardship figures results are not comparable to data from earlier weeks of the Pulse survey. In addition, Census at the same time made the entire survey longer, which led more respondents to skip questions toward the end of the survey, including the housing questions. Non-response is higher among groups that are younger, have lower levels of education, and identify as Black or Latino — groups that are more likely to struggle to afford rent, due to longstanding inequities that often stem from structural racism in education, employment, and housing. Therefore, the Pulse data likely understate the number of people struggling to pay rent.

TABLE 2
Over 1 in 7 Renters Nationwide Not Caught Up on Rent
Among adults in rental housing; data collected March 3-29
  Not Caught Up On Rent
  Estimated Number Percent
Alabama 199,000 22%
Alaska 27,000 18%
Arizona 254,000 15%
Arkansas 82,000 13%
California 1,868,000 15%
Colorado 169,000 13%
Connecticut 137,000 17%
Delaware 34,000 18%
District of Columbia 42,000 15%
Florida 917,000 18%
Georgia 417,000 17%
Hawai’i 45,000 13%
Idaho 31,000 10%
Illinois 619,000 23%
Indiana 291,000 23%
Iowa 89,000 16%
Kansas 73,000 12%
Kentucky 126,000 14%
Louisiana 184,000 20%
Maine 19,000 8%
Maryland 275,000 21%
Massachusetts 207,000 12%
Michigan 210,000 12%
Minnesota 86,000 9%
Mississippi 167,000 31%
Missouri 111,000 9%
Montana 22,000 11%
Nebraska 49,000 12%
Nevada 172,000 19%
New Hampshire 35,000 14%
New Jersey 356,000 17%
New Mexico 65,000 16%
New York 1,137,000 19%
North Carolina 269,000 12%
North Dakota 27,000 15%
Ohio 353,000 14%
Oklahoma 126,000 15%
Oregon 170,000 16%
Pennsylvania 310,000 12%
Rhode Island 55,000 22%
South Carolina 164,000 17%
South Dakota 34,000 22%
Tennessee 140,000 10%
Texas 982,000 15%
Utah 49,000 9%
Vermont 14,000 12%
Virginia 218,000 12%
Washington 239,000 13%
West Virginia 89,000 34%
Wisconsin 155,000 13%
Wyoming 18,000 18%

Note: Figures are averages of data collected March 3-15 and March 17-29. To adjust for non-response in the Pulse survey, the estimated number is calculated as the Pulse survey’s estimated share not caught up on rent multiplied by the total number of adult renters ages 18 and older from the American Community Survey.

Source: Calculated by Center on Budget and Policy Priorities from Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey published table “housing1b” for survey weeks 26 and 27, https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/household-pulse-survey/data.html; and 2019 American Community Survey public use file. 

Difficulty Covering Usual Household Expenses

The Pulse survey asks adult respondents if their household had difficulty paying for usual expenses such as food, rent or mortgage, car payments, medical expenses, or student loans in the last seven days. Table 3 shows the estimated number and percent of adults reporting that it was somewhat or very difficult for their household to pay for their usual expenses in the last seven days.

TABLE 3
About 3 in 10 Adults Nationwide Have Difficulty Covering Usual Household Expenses
Among adults; data collected March 3-29
  Difficulty Covering Usual Household Expenses
  Number Percent
United States 73,020,000 31%
Alabama 1,137,000 33%
Alaska 159,000 32%
Arizona 1,617,000 31%
Arkansas 789,000 38%
California 9,810,000 35%
Colorado 1,152,000 27%
Connecticut 818,000 32%
Delaware 222,000 31%
District of Columbia 143,000 28%
Florida 5,299,000 33%
Georgia 2,615,000 35%
Hawai’i 339,000 33%
Idaho 328,000 26%
Illinois 2,698,000 31%
Indiana 1,286,000 27%
Iowa 567,000 26%
Kansas 492,000 24%
Kentucky 997,000 32%
Louisiana 1,214,000 39%
Maine 301,000 30%
Maryland 1,360,000 31%
Massachusetts 1,197,000 24%
Michigan 2,120,000 30%
Minnesota 869,000 22%
Mississippi 802,000 40%
Missouri 1,163,000 27%
Montana 194,000 25%
Nebraska 348,000 26%
Nevada 758,000 34%
New Hampshire 273,000 26%
New Jersey 2,011,000 32%
New Mexico 501,000 34%
New York 4,806,000 35%
North Carolina 2,130,000 29%
North Dakota 135,000 26%
Ohio 2,465,000 29%
Oklahoma 1,022,000 37%
Oregon 935,000 30%
Pennsylvania 2,566,000 28%
Rhode Island 208,000 28%
South Carolina 1,067,000 29%
South Dakota 154,000 25%
Tennessee 1,433,000 30%
Texas 7,186,000 36%
Utah 503,000 23%
Vermont 107,000 23%
Virginia 1,636,000 27%
Washington 1,448,000 26%
West Virginia 416,000 32%
Wisconsin 1,100,000 26%
Wyoming 122,000 30%

Note: Figures are averages of data collected March 3-15 and March 17-29. In the latest data, collected March 17-29, 67 million adults nationwide (29 percent) reported difficulty paying for usual household expenses.

Source: Calculated by Center on Budget and Policy Priorities from Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey published table “spending1” for survey weeks 26 and 27, https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/household-pulse-survey/data.html 

 

High Unemployment

Table 4 provides state-by-state data on the unemployment rate over the January-March 2021 period and data on ongoing unemployment benefit claims.

Unemployment in most states has been highly elevated since April 2020, as has the number of people claiming unemployment insurance benefits.

TABLE 4
Unemployment, Jobless Claims High Across Most of the Country
States Unemployment rate (January-March average)a Current jobless benefits claims for week ending April 17b
Alabama 4.0 82,000
Alaska 6.6 39,000
Arizona 6.8 189,000
Arkansas 4.5 82,000
California 8.6 2,595,000
Colorado 6.5 172,000
Connecticut 8.3 200,000
Delaware 6.3 30,000
District of Columbia 8.1 39,000
Florida 4.7 130,000
Georgia 4.8 257,000
Hawai’i 9.5 88,000
Idaho 3.3 20,000
Illinois 7.4 725,000
Indiana 4.0 283,000
Iowa 3.7 63,000
Kansas 3.6 29,000
Kentucky 5.2 66,000
Louisiana 7.5 231,000
Maine 4.9 44,000
Maryland 6.3 303,000
Massachusetts 7.2 570,000
Michigan 5.3 697,000
Minnesota 4.4 307,000
Mississippi 6.3 93,000
Missouri 4.3 146,000
Montana 3.9 31,000
Nebraska 3.1 16,000
Nevada 8.3 227,000
New Hampshire 3.3 36,000
New Jersey 7.8 650,000
New Mexico 8.4 99,000
New York 8.7 2,197,000
North Carolina 5.6 302,000
North Dakota 4.6 16,000
Ohio 5.0 602,000
Oklahoma 4.3 77,000
Oregon 6.1 221,000
Pennsylvania 7.3 1,049,000
Puerto Rico 9.1 242,000
Rhode Island 7.2 74,000
South Carolina 5.2 169,000
South Dakota 3.0 5,000
Tennessee 5.0 169,000
Texas 6.9 1,315,000
Utah 3.0 25,000
Vermont 3.0 33,000
Virgin Islands 8.6* 2,000
Virginia 5.2 201,000
Washington 5.7 184,000
West Virginia 6.2 43,000
Wisconsin 3.8 142,000
Wyoming 5.2 10,000
U.S. 6.2 15,619,000

a All rates are the January-March 2021 average and are seasonally adjusted, except for the Virgin Islands.

b Compiled from data for regular state UI benefits, Pandemic Unemployment Assistance, and Pandemic Emergency Unemployment Compensation. Including other smaller programs, 16,157,024 people were claiming benefits in that week. Per GAO recommendations, the Department of Labor now says about these data, “Continued weeks claimed represent all weeks of benefits claimed during the week being reported, and do not represent weeks claimed by unique individuals.”

* Rate is not seasonally adjusted.

Source: Local Area Unemployment Statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; Labor Force, Employment and Unemployment for Virgin Islands from Virgin Islands Electronic Workforce System; Unemployment Weekly Claims Report, Department of Labor, May 7, 2021.

End Notes

[1] Federal surveys generally ask respondents whether they are “of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin.” This report uses the term “Latino.”

[2] Multiple data sources find similarly high levels of food hardship. See Brynne Keith-Jennings, Catlin Nchako, and Joseph Llobrera, “Number of Families Struggling to Afford Food Rose Steeply in Pandemic and Remains High, Especially Among Children and Households of Color,” CBPP, April 27, 2021, https://www.cbpp.org/research/food-assistance/number-of-families-struggling-to-afford-food-rose-steeply-in-pandemic-and.

[3] Differences between online and other (in-person or telephone) surveys explain some of the difference between food hardship rates in the Pulse survey and in the December 2019 survey (the Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement). One comparison found that, before the pandemic, respondents in an online survey were 38 percent more likely to report food insecurity than comparable respondents in a different survey with a live interviewer.

[4] The Pulse survey does not provide data for these groups individually.

[5] The latest Pulse survey estimates that 6.9 million adults live in households not caught up on rent. To adjust for non-response in the survey, we apply the share not caught up on rent (14.7 percent) to the total number of adult renters (73 million) in the March 2020 Current Population Survey to calculate an adjusted estimate.

[6] The latest Pulse survey estimates that 6.0 million adults are in households not caught up on their mortgage. To adjust for non-response in the survey, we apply the share not caught up on their mortgage (7.4 percent) to the total number of adult homeowners (about 100 million) in the March 2020 Current Population Survey to calculate an adjusted estimate.

[7] Ajay Chaudry and Christopher Wimer, “Poverty is Not Just an Indicator: The Relationship Between Income, Poverty, and Child Well-Being,” Academic Pediatrics, Vol. 16 Issue 3 (April 1, 2016), https://www.academicpedsjnl.net/article/S1876-2859(15)00383-6/fulltext.