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SNAP Boosts Retailers and Local Economies

August 29, 2017

 SNAP accounts for about 10 percent of the food that U.S. families buy for their homes. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, previously food stamps) is an important public-private partnership that helps families afford a basic diet, generates business for retailers, and boosts local economies.  SNAP accounts for about 10 percent of the food that U.S. families buy for their homes.  Participants purchase groceries with SNAP benefits at about 260,000 retailers — from superstores to farmers’ markets — across the country.  By increasing low-income households’ purchasing power so they can buy the food they need directly from stores, SNAP integrates economically marginalized households with almost no government administrative overhead resulting from food distribution.

SNAP redemptions are a meaningful share of food purchases in our country.  In 2016, SNAP participants redeemed about $67 billion in SNAP benefits for food purchases, supporting retailers of every size.  In 2014 (the most current year available), the roughly $70 billion in SNAP redemptions accounted for approximately 10 percent of expenditures on food for consumption at home.[1]

SNAP generates business for retailers of all types and sizes.  SNAP retailers comprise big- box superstores and major national grocery chains as well as small specialty stores, convenience stores, and farmers’ markets.  Between 2012 and 2016, the number of authorized retailers increased by 5 percent.[2]  Recent growth in the number of participating retailers has made SNAP an integral part of the food retail industry.

The large number and wide variety of authorized retailers also helps ensure that low-income families across the country can regularly access a store where they can redeem their SNAP dollars for food.  Though SNAP participants in some areas of the country, particularly rural areas, still have inadequate access to food stores, most can easily redeem their benefits.  Nationally, there are an average of about 80 SNAP authorized retailers per 100,000 people.[3]

Figure 1
Over 80% of SNAP Benefits Are Used at Larger Stores

SNAP provides important support for small business.  While over 80 percent of SNAP benefits are used at larger stores, including superstores (like Wal-Mart, Target, and Costco) and supermarkets (like Safeway), the vast majority of SNAP authorized retailers — about 80 percent — are smaller stores.[4]  These include many locally owned businesses, such as private groceries, convenience stores, dairies, butchers, bakeries, and farm stands.  For these small businesses, SNAP is an important revenue source — particularly in high-poverty areas, where SNAP purchases can account for a significant share of a retailer’s total sales.

SNAP increases both food and non-food purchases.  Households participating in SNAP spend more on food.[5]  But SNAP also increases their overall purchasing power, allowing them to meet other basic needs.  By providing more resources for food, SNAP helps free up cash for poor households to buy other essential items, like diapers and medication.  As a result, retail sales increase, benefiting stores that sell both food and non-food items.

SNAP helps local economies.  Because most households redeem their monthly SNAP benefits quickly and because the program helps struggling households purchase adequate food, SNAP is one of the most effective forms of economic stimulus during a downturn.  Economists estimate that, in a weak economy, every SNAP dollar that households redeem expands the economy by about $1.70.[6]  In 2009, the peak year of the last recession, $50 billion in SNAP benefits were spent in local stores, generating about $85 billion in local economic activity, even as the overall economy was struggling.

SNAP’s consistent standards create efficiencies for business.  In order to accept SNAP benefits, retailers must apply and meet certain standards.  Qualifying stores must sell food for preparation and consumption at home and meet one of two criteria.  A retailer must either (1) continuously stock a certain variety of staple foods, including perishables, or (2) have more than 50 percent of its gross retail sales from staple foods.  While most authorized stores qualify by meeting the first criterion, specialty stores, like butcher shops, are often authorized under the second.  The USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service carefully and continuously monitors retailers in order to protect the program and promote integrity and compliance among retailers.[7]

SNAP also has national standards about which products can be purchased with SNAP, and how benefits are redeemed.  This uniformity promotes efficiency and limits costs for the private sector.  Retailers with multiple locations and presence in multiple states can employ consistent operational practices and equipment across their stores.  The Food Marketing Institute (FMI), a trade association that represents food retailers and wholesalers, recognizes that this benefits the industry and customers alike.  As FMI Chief Public Policy Officer and Senior Vice President Jennifer Hatcher recently told Congress:

We now have a national program with nationally-approved products that is consistent from state to state.  The evolution to 100% interoperable electronic transactions … has made the program much easier for operations and compliance and much simpler for customers.… [T]he efficiencies and simplicity of the administrative function of SNAP that have achieved easier operation and compliance and a simpler customer experience have happened because of the consistency of a national program.[8]

Additional Resources

Appendix

TABLE 1
Number of SNAP Retailers by Store Type and State
State Super-store Super-market Grocery Store Convenience Store Other Retailer Farmers’ Market Total
Alabama 317 339 1,871 2,359 512 27 5,425
Alaska 39 41 182 237 32 16 547
Arizona 491 231 1,158 1,931 155 36 4,002
Arkansas 275 103 947 1,325 116 43 2,809
California 2,032 1,911 7,537 12,095 983 506 25,064
Colorado 390 216 736 1,226 208 75 2,851
Connecticut 216 188 881 1,148 100 43 2,576
Delaware 44 67 329 315 39 14 808
District of Columbia 25 25 150 202 45 35 482
Florida 863 1,625 5,204 7,446 767 81 15,986
Georgia 637 615 3,065 5,260 528 99 10,204
Hawaii 117 29 251 407 151 57 1,012
Idaho 94 79 263 533 90 28 1,087
Illinois 851 639 3,285 4,010 341 110 9,236
Indiana 452 325 1,804 2,413 230 73 5,297
Iowa 343 60 703 1,452 312 20 2,890
Kansas 216 111 704 838 133 29 2,031
Kentucky 311 271 1,455 2,254 298 75 4,664
Louisiana 327 244 1,862 2,128 253 26 4,840
Maine 127 45 437 727 157 57 1,550
Maryland 413 302 1,279 1,574 318 48 3,934
Massachusetts 381 331 1,652 2,491 330 144 5,329
Michigan 778 406 2,666 5,331 537 205 9,923
Minnesota 344 246 1,035 1,473 272 97 3,467
Mississippi 221 111 1,247 1,783 215 26 3,603
Missouri 429 342 1,532 2,394 235 63 4,995
Montana 72 67 172 374 59 19 763
Nebraska 153 69 503 430 92 18 1,265
Nevada 178 108 532 946 58 17 1,839
New Hampshire 132 54 308 473 57 33 1,057
New Jersey 530 344 2,895 2,009 248 51 6,077
New Mexico 143 83 502 718 88 54 1,588
New York 970 1,291 8,187 6,420 988 234 18,090
North Carolina 572 950 3,059 4,417 491 111 9,600
North Dakota 67 25 162 186 59 7 506
Ohio 801 544 3,405 4,382 380 132 9,644
Oklahoma 242 189 1,140 1,829 132 35 3,567
Oregon 218 255 691 1,801 356 107 3,428
Pennsylvania 713 787 4,470 3,778 480 82 10,310
Rhode Island 46 60 401 393 36 30 966
South Carolina 279 455 1,585 2,714 336 39 5,408
South Dakota 60 24 244 320 59 15 722
Tennessee 384 459 2,254 3,483 251 74 6,905
Texas 1,401 1,242 6,207 10,251 710 76 19,887
Utah 196 109 384 657 100 25 1,471
Vermont 36 49 187 343 47 51 713
Virginia 557 567 1,892 3,079 250 124 6,469
Washington 402 392 1,111 2,573 393 118 4,989
West Virginia 130 111 699 1,123 71 37 2,171
Wisconsin 522 175 1,119 1,984 281 96 4,177
Wyoming 48 29 78 182 26 10 373
Guam 14 6 126 88 23 1 258
Virgin Islands 12 4 36 25 13 -   90
United States 19,611 17,350 84,584 118,330 13,441 3,629 256,945

Source: Food and Nutrition Services, USDA, July 5, 2017

 

TABLE 2
Number of SNAP Retailers by Store Type and Congressional District
Congressional District Super-store Super-market Grocery Store Convenience Store Other Farmers’ Market Total
Alabama-01 47 53 343 365 67 2 877
Alabama-02 44 48 272 381 80 1 826
Alabama-03 43 52 266 318 69 2 750
Alabama-04 43 48 284 349 91 1 816
Alabama-05 52 41 230 304 54 6 687
Alabama-06 51 53 205 206 59 5 579
Alabama-07 37 44 271 436 92 10 890
Alaska, At-Large 39 41 182 237 32 16 547
Arizona-01 58 27 140 283 13 2 523
Arizona-02 51 37 135 212 22 6 463
Arizona-03 47 8 140 202 28 4 429
Arizona-04 48 23 134 242 16 6 469
Arizona-05 62 33 92 132 14 1 334
Arizona-06 60 33 108 171 13 4 389
Arizona-07 53 10 175 315 20 6 579
Arizona-08 54 31 86 112 15 1 299
Arizona-09 58 29 148 262 14 6 517
Arkansas-01 65 38 242 425 26 4 800
Arkansas-02 72 9 214 319 29 10 653
Arkansas-03 86 20 227 234 34 18 619
Arkansas-04 52 36 264 347 27 11 737
California-01 31 57 160 361 45 35 689
California-02 44 58 148 231 37 33 551
California-03 34 36 147 284 32 16 549
California-04 32 47 137 231 26 24 497
California-05 40 42 125 205 18 22 452
California-06 31 40 181 294 29 16 591
California-07 39 42 119 225 22 10 457
California-08 28 36 134 321 16 9 544
California-09 25 34 148 276 24 5 512
California-10 36 33 201 327 28 4 629
California-11 34 40 147 157 21 13 412
California-12 31 29 198 150 24 13 445
California-13 23 39 193 252 27 18 552
California-14 34 38 111 89 6 11 289
California-15 29 33 111 137 4 11 325
California-16 30 20 250 420 57 4 781
California-17 44 41 104 106 8 9 312
California-18 30 47 90 92 5 11 275
California-19 33 27 88 169 19 8 344
California-20 39 42 177 194 39 15 506
California-21 39 12 266 414 33 6 770
California-22 55 20 231 339 29 6 680
California-23 32 31 164 334 24 8 593
California-24 44 50 117 193 8 13 425
California-25 43 31 92 171 4 4 345
California-26 46 38 140 162 15 8 409
California-27 43 32 105 111 11 7 309
California-28 40 43 177 165 35 16 476
California-29 35 24 105 228 21 2 415
California-30 47 40 107 147 7 9 357
California-31 39 51 139 309 14 9 561
California-32 45 37 152 234 18 6 492
California-33 47 38 85 72 4 15 261
California-34 37 19 228 326 34 12 656
California-35 38 29 120 304 14 6 511
California-36 45 44 163 229 7 5 493
California-37 32 28 171 255 14 14 514
California-38 45 34 128 237 16 8 468
California-39 44 36 95 143 4 2 324
California-40 29 22 293 450 44 8 846
California-41 38 27 117 219 17 6 424
California-42 29 43 91 143 6 1 313
California-43 46 22 155 349 22 7 601
California-44 31 25 190 329 25 5 605
California-45 46 35 69 68 -   -   218
California-46 41 33 136 235 17 5 467
California-47 47 34 133 257 12 7 490
California-48 50 46 89 125 9 3 322
California-49 42 45 93 118 9 2 309
California-50 42 43 106 227 6 3 427
California-51 46 38 160 291 11 5 551
California-52 41 51 67 157 3 6 325
California-53 41 29 84 233 3 5 395
Colorado-01 49 31 106 227 23 11 447
Colorado-02 61 34 64 105 22 11 297
Colorado-03 67 34 150 206 53 30 540
Colorado-04 47 37 121 148 32 6 391
Colorado-05 45 27 90 204 31 7 404
Colorado-06 60 24 121 149 24 1 379
Colorado-07 61 29 84 187 23 9 393
Connecticut-01 50 47 242 274 23 9 645
Connecticut-02 40 36 149 239 30 13 507
Connecticut-03 44 29 172 268 16 5 534
Connecticut-04 34 35 137 154 13 9 382
Connecticut-05 48 41 181 213 18 7 508
Delaware, At-Large 44 67 329 315 39 14 808
District of Columbia, At-Large 25 25 150 202 45 35 482
Florida-01 39 51 236 303 49 2 680
Florida-02 39 56 229 383 62 5 774
Florida-03 34 62 226 360 45 8 735
Florida-04 31 62 162 272 41 5 573
Florida-05 29 54 279 541 97 3 1,003
Florida-06 21 66 200 340 29 3 659
Florida-07 34 69 157 265 18 3 546
Florida-08 28 60 194 356 19 4 661
Florida-09 33 73 221 304 17 3 651
Florida-10 34 59 229 330 21 -   673
Florida-11 26 55 199 270 35 2 587
Florida-12 32 54 165 250 22 1 524
Florida-13 33 69 219 341 38 5 705
Florida-14 44 51 224 347 33 4 703
Florida-15 36 56 184 321 20 2 619
Florida-16 39 63 165 264 17 4 552
Florida-17 31 52 191 270 24 7 575
Florida-18 22 69 147 210 12 1 461
Florida-19 48 65 211 252 14 2 592
Florida-20 34 47 210 263 13 4 571
Florida-21 40 57 154 179 6 1 437
Florida-22 34 71 138 198 7 4 452
Florida-23 31 71 123 127 8 2 362
Florida-24 30 49 217 242 30 3 571
Florida-25 26 57 179 189 41 1 493
Florida-26 20 65 159 137 27 2 410
Florida-27 15 62 186 132 22 -   417
Georgia-01 55 38 233 472 70 7 875
Georgia-02 49 37 311 539 76 10 1,022
Georgia-03 35 54 222 390 30 9 740
Georgia-04 44 39 215 282 31 4 615
Georgia-05 49 33 188 440 57 25 792
Georgia-06 55 50 131 144 5 5 390
Georgia-07 60 54 180 219 15 3 531
Georgia-08 54 35 281 521 59 7 957
Georgia-09 39 48 250 383 23 5 748
Georgia-10 29 52 201 380 34 6 702
Georgia-11 45 49 161 235 10 1 501
Georgia-12 47 41 242 506 70 7 913
Georgia-13 42 38 198 310 24 4 616
Georgia-14 34 47 252 439 24 6 802
Hawaii-01 44 13 136 193 89 23 498
Hawaii-02 73 16 115 214 62 34 514
Idaho-01 44 43 129 268 46 15 545
Idaho-02 50 36 134 265 44 13 542
Illinois-01 38 47 220 236 18 14 573
Illinois-02 30 39 202 273 20 3 567
Illinois-03 40 37 179 173 14 7 450
Illinois-04 52 33 294 202 39 6 626
Illinois-05 53 37 124 144 9 7 374
Illinois-06 48 48 86 100 6 4 292
Illinois-07 36 36 274 262 24 8 640
Illinois-08 53 37 140 160 26 1 417
Illinois-09 48 44 165 123 12 11 403
Illinois-10 49 36 152 139 15 2 393
Illinois-11 47 38 144 177 9 2 417
Illinois-12 54 35 208 333 23 7 660
Illinois-13 64 25 206 312 19 10 636
Illinois-14 31 31 88 114 10 4 278
Illinois-15 47 30 223 315 31 6 652
Illinois-16 53 27 173 313 16 4 586
Illinois-17 51 29 233 340 28 10 691
Illinois-18 57 30 174 294 22 4 581
Indiana-01 34 53 203 276 17 4 587
Indiana-02 44 40 224 264 14 8 594
Indiana-03 49 27 206 249 31 9 571
Indiana-04 57 33 179 291 25 5 590
Indiana-05 57 50 158 209 24 10 508
Indiana-06 41 35 205 295 31 14 621
Indiana-07 42 36 255 324 34 6 697
Indiana-08 68 31 203 253 28 6 589
Indiana-09 60 20 171 252 26 11 540
Iowa-01 75 16 170 363 88 6 718
Iowa-02 83 17 160 391 76 3 730
Iowa-03 93 13 174 363 82 8 733
Iowa-04 92 14 199 335 66 3 709
Kansas-01 56 21 220 247 32 7 583
Kansas-02 46 29 170 226 38 12 521
Kansas-03 55 44 139 155 25 5 423
Kansas-04 59 17 175 210 38 5 504
Kentucky-01 43 60 274 361 53 5 796
Kentucky-02 47 53 236 360 70 11 777
Kentucky-03 70 24 234 296 13 18 655
Kentucky-04 51 21 201 323 39 4 639
Kentucky-05 43 81 299 539 65 15 1,042
Kentucky-06 57 32 211 375 58 22 755
Louisiana-01 72 32 285 239 33 4 665
Louisiana-02 40 32 361 420 59 8 920
Louisiana-03 53 60 348 364 61 3 889
Louisiana-04 41 44 270 379 27 5 766
Louisiana-05 48 51 300 426 40 5 870
Louisiana-06 73 25 298 300 33 1 730
Maine-01 56 22 190 295 60 21 644
Maine-02 71 23 247 432 97 36 906
Maryland-01 28 50 170 252 59 3 562
Maryland-02 60 41 166 260 40 5 572
Maryland-03 68 25 148 196 26 6 469
Maryland-04 55 33 136 158 26 7 415
Maryland-05 57 38 111 125 40 5 376
Maryland-06 51 43 158 139 36 4 431
Maryland-07 40 32 286 357 74 10 799
Maryland-08 54 40 104 87 17 8 310
Massachusetts-01 53 36 220 385 70 23 787
Massachusetts-02 49 39 173 285 68 15 629
Massachusetts-03 47 16 219 265 37 11 595
Massachusetts-04 37 46 138 195 31 14 461
Massachusetts-05 28 37 139 188 18 12 422
Massachusetts-06 48 31 167 234 23 11 514
Massachusetts-07 35 32 247 351 29 27 721
Massachusetts-08 44 40 169 269 16 13 551
Massachusetts-09 40 54 180 319 38 18 649
Michigan-01 84 42 217 319 52 34 748
Michigan-02 57 31 181 299 61 15 644
Michigan-03 52 27 174 297 47 15 612
Michigan-04 57 35 192 381 33 28 726
Michigan-05 53 33 202 480 63 10 841
Michigan-06 49 41 190 333 29 17 659
Michigan-07 45 21 147 305 23 15 556
Michigan-08 53 15 144 215 13 13 453
Michigan-09 67 21 203 459 28 6 784
Michigan-10 53 22 167 354 28 12 636
Michigan-11 78 22 152 234 8 3 497
Michigan-12 57 28 217 396 32 17 747
Michigan-13 31 42 235 711 73 10 1,102
Michigan-14 42 26 245 548 47 10 918
Minnesota-01 54 25 140 198 44 13 474
Minnesota-02 45 31 96 153 30 4 359
Minnesota-03 40 40 85 123 22 6 316
Minnesota-04 38 38 132 180 29 10 427
Minnesota-05 27 36 162 182 25 17 449
Minnesota-06 46 16 80 147 33 8 330
Minnesota-07 55 20 206 211 48 17 557
Minnesota-08 39 40 134 279 41 22 555
Mississippi-01 56 31 316 363 42 8 816
Mississippi-02 52 23 315 614 63 10 1,077
Mississippi-03 62 22 282 412 57 4 839
Mississippi-04 51 35 334 394 53 4 871
Missouri-01 39 43 229 382 43 7 743
Missouri-02 84 37 115 164 16 1 417
Missouri-03 62 30 154 255 18 4 523
Missouri-04 44 38 187 318 36 14 637
Missouri-05 50 49 200 328 34 14 675
Missouri-06 47 33 185 256 23 7 551
Missouri-07 55 47 216 344 36 8 706
Missouri-08 48 65 246 347 29 8 743
Montana, At-Large 72 67 172 374 59 19 763
Nebraska-01 43 27 151 133 33 9 396
Nebraska-02 67 13 114 145 18 5 362
Nebraska-03 43 29 238 152 41 4 507
Nevada-01 54 24 162 310 7 4 561
Nevada-02 42 34 125 292 26 7 526
Nevada-03 40 30 119 154 7 3 353
Nevada-04 42 20 126 190 18 3 399
New Hampshire-01 71 24 154 240 23 13 525
New Hampshire-02 61 30 154 233 34 20 532
New Jersey-01 40 29 261 258 25 3 616
New Jersey-02 38 42 282 242 30 5 639
New Jersey-03 44 24 160 197 19 2 446
New Jersey-04 47 34 165 142 18 4 410
New Jersey-05 43 28 149 72 12 5 309
New Jersey-06 39 28 222 160 14 4 467
New Jersey-07 53 32 114 66 7 5 277
New Jersey-08 50 30 371 252 41 5 749
New Jersey-09 45 24 377 163 29 -   638
New Jersey-10 36 18 439 263 30 8 794
New Jersey-11 48 25 122 51 7 3 256
New Jersey-12 47 30 233 143 16 7 476
New Mexico-01 48 28 137 198 32 11 454
New Mexico-02 44 28 206 287 26 18 609
New Mexico-03 51 27 159 233 30 25 525
New York-01 41 41 148 129 8 4 371
New York-02 47 27 131 118 8 5 336
New York-03 47 38 102 59 5 5 256
New York-04 42 40 171 160 16 5 434
New York-05 29 39 362 231 34 3 698
New York-06 42 44 229 143 29 2 489
New York-07 36 48 664 302 89 7 1,146
New York-08 37 46 479 347 27 10 946
New York-09 32 54 477 305 62 9 939
New York-10 45 42 363 143 54 4 651
New York-11 30 32 401 251 35 1 750
New York-12 47 50 291 127 12 3 530
New York-13 41 40 523 325 65 12 1,006
New York-14 44 35 438 246 32 1 796
New York-15 30 66 719 386 90 9 1,300
New York-16 24 44 341 176 21 6 612
New York-17 43 46 168 86 17 7 367
New York-18 37 44 151 179 29 8 448
New York-19 30 51 213 319 56 21 690
New York-20 39 47 240 340 15 15 696
New York-21 39 67 233 341 40 23 743
New York-22 29 55 244 350 40 15 733
New York-23 35 63 210 244 52 23 627
New York-24 28 65 241 280 26 9 649
New York-25 28 47 197 281 37 9 599
New York-26 25 51 269 392 47 11 795
New York-27 23 69 182 160 42 7 483
North Carolina-01 41 66 262 445 55 16 885
North Carolina-02 52 59 176 288 34 3 612
North Carolina-03 45 73 242 330 64 10 764
North Carolina-04 70 69 194 225 34 12 604
North Carolina-05 36 78 247 357 25 8 751
North Carolina-06 27 69 217 351 40 6 710
North Carolina-07 44 74 284 340 55 2 799
North Carolina-08 40 72 233 304 37 6 692
North Carolina-09 52 71 214 351 35 4 727
North Carolina-10 37 80 264 413 23 17 834
North Carolina-11 25 89 245 313 29 16 717
North Carolina-12 60 69 222 336 19 6 712
North Carolina-13 43 81 259 364 41 5 793
North Dakota, At-Large 67 25 162 186 59 7 506
Ohio-01 56 17 218 270 30 8 599
Ohio-02 58 28 225 304 11 8 634
Ohio-03 54 30 285 409 13 12 803
Ohio-04 50 39 214 250 24 10 587
Ohio-05 53 32 192 232 16 2 527
Ohio-06 40 39 244 345 29 4 701
Ohio-07 39 46 194 198 34 7 518
Ohio-08 41 23 195 246 9 6 520
Ohio-09 41 39 235 401 22 8 746
Ohio-10 54 26 213 254 22 3 572
Ohio-11 41 51 232 407 77 26 834
Ohio-12 59 19 163 194 14 7 456
Ohio-13 56 39 255 284 24 10 668
Ohio-14 50 47 184 188 21 7 497
Ohio-15 58 21 173 228 18 9 507
Ohio-16 51 48 183 172 16 5 475
Oklahoma-01 62 29 214 253 26 6 590
Oklahoma-02 48 36 250 490 29 12 865
Oklahoma-03 35 55 217 334 29 4 674
Oklahoma-04 46 38 224 316 28 7 659
Oklahoma-05 51 31 235 436 20 6 779
Oregon-01 49 44 124 231 54 14 516
Oregon-02 44 59 158 399 82 21 763
Oregon-03 38 52 148 419 59 26 742
Oregon-04 45 56 146 430 81 26 784
Oregon-05 42 44 115 322 80 20 623
Pennsylvania-01 30 35 654 319 66 3 1,107
Pennsylvania-02 23 28 598 202 39 4 894
Pennsylvania-03 47 29 255 228 31 6 596
Pennsylvania-04 33 47 176 234 38 5 533
Pennsylvania-05 44 51 215 213 17 6 546
Pennsylvania-06 33 64 140 141 18 5 401
Pennsylvania-07 24 41 118 127 17 2 329
Pennsylvania-08 35 45 142 130 15 -   367
Pennsylvania-09 42 48 238 229 22 5 584
Pennsylvania-10 35 59 211 196 33 4 538
Pennsylvania-11 32 56 197 252 21 5 563
Pennsylvania-12 61 25 201 161 15 1 464
Pennsylvania-13 40 48 269 185 21 3 566
Pennsylvania-14 55 27 256 282 16 10 646
Pennsylvania-15 36 57 157 224 29 9 512
Pennsylvania-16 36 47 227 241 30 5 586
Pennsylvania-17 41 56 244 247 36 6 630
Pennsylvania-18 66 24 172 167 16 3 448
Rhode Island-01 18 31 214 203 15 15 496
Rhode Island-02 28 29 187 190 21 15 470
South Carolina-01 60 60 151 223 44 4 542
South Carolina-02 47 63 199 342 40 5 696
South Carolina-03 23 63 242 381 34 6 749
South Carolina-04 32 78 242 349 25 9 735
South Carolina-05 35 59 202 437 45 4 782
South Carolina-06 29 51 266 536 88 8 978
South Carolina-07 53 81 283 446 60 3 926
South Dakota, At-Large 60 24 244 320 59 15 722
Tennessee-01 34 67 248 416 27 13 805
Tennessee-02 43 58 190 352 38 6 687
Tennessee-03 32 71 256 445 29 11 844
Tennessee-04 44 50 283 408 32 8 825
Tennessee-05 52 42 298 342 25 14 773
Tennessee-06 42 54 244 400 23 7 770
Tennessee-07 43 48 235 295 28 5 654
Tennessee-08 49 39 217 310 26 3 644
Tennessee-09 45 30 283 515 23 7 903
Texas-01 50 42 212 253 17 4 578
Texas-02 47 31 128 168 8 -   382
Texas-03 58 36 135 129 11 1 370
Texas-04 35 49 207 294 29 1 615
Texas-05 37 41 190 291 17 4 580
Texas-06 40 33 158 225 12 -   468
Texas-07 45 38 153 161 16 2 415
Texas-08 54 27 151 249 14 2 497
Texas-09 40 29 152 280 21 1 523
Texas-10 47 37 132 229 19 3 467
Texas-11 37 40 186 344 15 -   622
Texas-12 45 34 169 255 8 2 513
Texas-13 28 49 222 296 21 2 618
Texas-14 41 31 199 311 23 1 606
Texas-15 26 30 268 416 36 4 780
Texas-16 50 25 213 256 45 1 590
Texas-17 35 23 156 315 12 2 543
Texas-18 29 30 167 394 23 4 647
Texas-19 32 43 186 291 19 1 572
Texas-20 24 28 152 332 22 7 565
Texas-21 30 37 117 229 9 4 426
Texas-22 44 35 122 163 11 -   375
Texas-23 34 22 186 321 23 1 587
Texas-24 48 38 132 190 8 1 417
Texas-25 31 37 122 262 12 2 466
Texas-26 47 34 125 125 11 2 344
Texas-27 28 35 176 400 32 2 673
Texas-28 31 30 242 366 29 1 699
Texas-29 42 35 184 422 26 1 710
Texas-30 45 35 159 313 19 2 573
Texas-31 28 35 143 294 16 1 517
Texas-32 54 50 142 188 9 1 444
Texas-33 50 30 188 375 9 1 653
Texas-34 21 31 268 381 56 4 761
Texas-35 22 31 152 439 21 10 675
Texas-36 46 31 213 294 31 1 616
Utah-01 50 21 77 169 33 9 359
Utah-02 49 35 115 179 30 10 418
Utah-03 50 27 83 127 19 5 311
Utah-04 47 26 109 182 18 1 383
Vermont, At-Large 36 49 187 343 47 51 713
Virginia-01 47 52 147 268 30 14 558
Virginia-02 60 47 162 265 37 5 576
Virginia-03 57 56 204 400 38 2 757
Virginia-04 33 50 218 403 46 16 766
Virginia-05 33 54 201 387 18 12 705
Virginia-06 54 54 225 338 18 21 710
Virginia-07 50 66 169 221 25 6 537
Virginia-08 61 37 146 120 5 14 383
Virginia-09 40 78 237 474 22 23 874
Virginia-10 62 39 90 116 8 5 320
Virginia-11 60 34 93 87 3 6 283
Washington-01 34 38 82 178 30 11 373
Washington-02 54 39 115 245 49 13 515
Washington-03 36 40 94 312 43 10 535
Washington-04 35 39 146 346 52 10 628
Washington-05 35 39 118 264 46 18 520
Washington-06 40 40 90 304 43 17 534
Washington-07 45 44 121 210 25 14 459
Washington-08 32 37 79 184 30 8 370
Washington-09 55 39 162 257 31 6 550
Washington-10 36 37 104 273 44 11 505
West Virginia-01 52 29 215 336 16 13 661
West Virginia-02 43 39 228 346 31 11 698
West Virginia-03 35 43 256 441 24 13 812
Wisconsin-01 74 22 133 230 30 4 493
Wisconsin-02 65 16 129 214 42 19 485
Wisconsin-03 58 22 138 243 46 16 523
Wisconsin-04 46 22 177 418 19 10 692
Wisconsin-05 92 21 97 165 24 7 406
Wisconsin-06 66 19 126 188 31 8 438
Wisconsin-07 58 35 169 288 54 20 624
Wisconsin-08 63 18 150 238 35 12 516
Wyoming, At-Large 48 29 78 182 26 10 373
Guam, At-Large 14 6 126 88 23 1 258
Virgin Islands, At-Large 12 4 36 25 13 -   90
United States 19,611 17,350 84,584 118,330 13,441 3,629 256,945
Source: Food and Nutrition Services, USDA, July 5, 2017

End Notes

[1] Food and Nutrition Service, “SNAP Retailer Management 2014 Annual Report,” U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2014, https://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/snap/2014-SNAP-Retailer-Management-Annual-Report.pdf; Economic Research Service, “Food Expenditures, Food at home: Total expenditures,” U.S. Department of Agriculture, updated January 26, 2016, https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-expenditures/food-expenditures/#Food Expenditures. The “food at home” expenditure total (Table 2) includes food purchased at food and other stores, food purchased for home delivery and mail order, and food purchased from farmers, manufacturers, and wholesalers. It does not include food produced at home or donated foods.  

[2] Food and Nutrition Service, “2016 Retailer Management Year End Summary,” U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2016, https://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/snap/2016-SNAP-Retailer-Management-Year-End-Summary.pdf.

[3] CBPP calculation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service SNAP Retailer data (see https://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/retailerlocator) as of July 5, 2017 and the 2015 American Community Survey (ACS) 1-Year Population Estimates.

[4] Smaller stores include all authorized SNAP retailers other than superstores, supermarkets, wholesalers, and large and medium grocery stores.

[5] Patricia M. Anderson and Kristin F. Butcher, “The Relationships Among SNAP Benefits, Grocery Spending, Diet Quality, and the Adequacy of Low-Income Families’ Resources,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, June 14, 2016, https://www.cbpp.org/research/the-relationships-among-snap-benefits-grocery-spending-diet-quality-and-the-adequacy-of-low.

[6] Alan S. Blinder and Mark Zandi, “The Financial Crisis: Lessons for the Next One,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, October 15, 2015, https://www.cbpp.org/research/economy/the-financial-crisis-lessons-for-the-next-one.

[7] For more information, see https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/snap/2016-SNAP-Retailer-Management-Year-End-Summary.pdf.

[8] Testimony of Jennifer Hatcher, Food Marketing Institute, hearing on “The Next Farm Bill, The Future of SNAP,” before the House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Nutrition, March 28, 2017.