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SNAP Boosts Retailers and Local Economies

UPDATED
May 28, 2020

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, previously food stamps) is an important public-private partnership that helps families afford a basic diet, generates business for retailers, and boosts local economies. SNAP accounts for about 8 percent of the food that U.S. families buy for their homes. Participants purchase groceries with SNAP benefits at about 248,000 retailers — from superstores to farmers markets — across the country. By increasing low-income households’ purchasing power so they can buy the food they need directly from stores, SNAP integrates economically marginalized households with almost no government administrative overhead resulting from food distribution."SNAP accounts for about 8 percent of the food that U.S. families buy for their homes."

SNAP redemptions are a meaningful share of food purchases in our country. In fiscal year 2019, SNAP participants redeemed about $56 billion in SNAP benefits for food purchases, supporting retailers of every size. In 2018 (the most current year available), the roughly $61 billion in SNAP redemptions accounted for approximately 8 percent of expenditures on food for consumption at home.[1]

SNAP generates business for retailers of all types and sizes. SNAP retailers comprise big- box superstores and major national grocery chains as well as small specialty stores, convenience stores, and farmers markets.

The large number and wide variety of authorized retailers also help ensure that low-income families across the country can regularly access a store where they can redeem their SNAP dollars for food. Though SNAP participants in some areas of the country, particularly rural areas, still have inadequate access to food stores, most can easily redeem their benefits. Nationally, there are an average of about 75 SNAP authorized retailers per 100,000 people.[2]

SNAP provides important support for small business. While over 80 percent of SNAP benefits are used at larger stores, including superstores (like Walmart, Target, and Costco) and supermarkets (like Food Lion and Safeway), the vast majority of SNAP-authorized retailers — about 80 percent — are smaller stores.[3] These include many locally owned businesses, such as private groceries, convenience stores, dairies, butchers, bakeries, and farm stands. For these small businesses, SNAP is an important revenue source — particularly in high-poverty areas, where SNAP purchases can account for a significant share of a retailer’s total sales.

Figure 1
SNAP Participants Redeem 80% of Their Benefits at Larger Stores

SNAP increases both food and non-food purchases. Households participating in SNAP spend more on food.[4] But SNAP also increases their overall purchasing power, allowing them to meet other basic needs. By providing more resources for food, SNAP helps free up cash for poor households to buy other essential items, like diapers and medication. As a result, retail sales increase, benefiting stores that sell both food and non-food items.

SNAP helps local economies. Because most households redeem their monthly SNAP benefits quickly and because the program helps struggling households purchase adequate food, SNAP is one of the most effective forms of economic stimulus during a downturn. Every dollar in new SNAP benefits spent when the economy is weak and unemployment elevated would increase the gross domestic product by $1.54, a recent USDA study estimated.[5] In 2009, the peak year of the Great Recession, $50 billion in SNAP benefits were spent in local stores, generating about $85 billion in local economic activity, even as the overall economy was struggling.

SNAP’s consistent standards create efficiencies for business. In order to accept SNAP benefits, retailers must apply and meet certain standards. Qualifying stores must sell food for preparation and consumption at home and meet one of two criteria. A retailer must either: (1) continuously stock a certain variety of staple foods, including perishables, or (2) have more than 50 percent of its gross retail sales from staple foods. While most authorized stores qualify by meeting the first criterion, specialty stores, like butcher shops, are often authorized under the second. The USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service carefully and continuously monitors retailers in order to protect the program and promote integrity and compliance among retailers.[6]

SNAP also has national standards about which products can be purchased with SNAP, and how benefits are redeemed. This uniformity promotes efficiency and limits costs for the private sector. Retailers with multiple locations and presence in multiple states can employ consistent operational practices and equipment across their stores. The Food Marketing Institute (FMI), a trade association that represents food retailers and wholesalers, recognizes that this benefits the industry and customers alike. As FMI Chief Public Policy Officer and Senior Vice President Jennifer Hatcher told Congress:

We now have a national program with nationally-approved products that is consistent from state to state. The evolution to 100% interoperable electronic transactions … has made the program much easier for operations and compliance and much simpler for customers.… [T]he efficiencies and simplicity of the administrative function of SNAP that have achieved easier operation and compliance and a simpler customer experience have happened because of the consistency of a national program.[7]

Additional Resources

Appendix

TABLE 1
Number of SNAP Retailers by Store Type and State
State Super-store Super-market Grocery Store Convenience Store Other Retailer Farmers Market Total
Alabama 326 348 1,730 1,967 139 11 4,521
Alaska 42 45 146 229 23 5 490
Arizona 476 248 1,149 1,791 113 31 3,808
Arkansas 248 132 935 1,135 64 17 2,531
California 2,122 2,325 6,714 11,571 724 418 23,874
Colorado 390 220 752 1,256 138 55 2,811
Connecticut 216 188 844 1,082 41 31 2,402
Delaware 46 71 305 302 26 8 758
District of Columbia 27 25 135 188 18 32 425
Florida 927 1,713 5,060 6,491 486 50 14,727
Georgia 625 631 3,009 4,689 259 53 9,266
Hawaii 127 37 231 396 85 27 903
Idaho 98 92 254 537 70 21 1,072
Illinois 823 605 3,108 4,026 228 71 8,861
Indiana 456 274 1,858 2,296 128 60 5,072
Iowa 356 81 755 1,427 81 12 2,712
Kansas 216 118 720 783 88 24 1,949
Kentucky 310 267 1,456 2,159 101 44 4,337
Louisiana 330 261 1,774 1,710 168 23 4,266
Maine 124 57 448 656 43 45 1,373
Maryland 412 307 1,159 1,481 126 26 3,511
Massachusetts 386 335 1,606 2,394 62 86 4,869
Michigan 758 459 2,656 4,965 310 139 9,287
Minnesota 358 275 1,065 1,445 188 82 3,413
Mississippi 204 139 1,101 1,520 83 14 3,061
Missouri 431 346 1,557 2,247 131 37 4,749
Montana 72 80 174 353 49 25 753
Nebraska 158 71 516 493 45 7 1,290
Nevada 189 129 533 922 53 9 1,835
New Hampshire 126 57 329 451 17 28 1,008
New Jersey 548 373 2,610 2,024 185 24 5,764
New Mexico 137 92 512 695 71 38 1,545
New York 1,008 1,305 6,659 6,930 695 142 16,739
North Carolina 578 983 2,974 3,973 256 65 8,829
North Dakota 72 26 192 173 50 7 520
Ohio 824 599 3,438 4,155 215 91 9,322
Oklahoma 245 205 1,171 1,707 75 30 3,433
Oregon 232 268 714 1,762 198 82 3,256
Pennsylvania 710 826 4,049 3,911 319 45 9,860
Rhode Island 49 64 379 346 20 23 881
South Carolina 282 444 1,554 2,385 153 20 4,838
South Dakota 58 32 246 330 40 9 715
Tennessee 397 477 2,083 3,121 136 39 6,253
Texas 1,425 1,282 6,417 9,911 505 52 19,592
Utah 196 115 381 631 86 24 1,433
Vermont 35 55 210 315 12 38 665
Virginia 554 566 1,895 2,968 139 90 6,212
Washington 416 404 1,095 2,398 301 105 4,719
West Virginia 129 114 715 1,062 36 22 2,078
Wisconsin 510 192 1,150 1,962 177 56 4,047
Wyoming 48 29 81 167 20 7 352
Guam 14 5 88 102 17 - 226
Virgin Islands 15 3 23 28 3 - 72
United States 19,861 18,395 80,715 112,018 7,796 2,500 241,285

Source: USDA Food and Nutrition Service, December 4, 2019

TABLE 2
Number of SNAP Retailers by Store Type and Congressional District
Congressional District Super-store Super-market Grocery Store Convenience Store Other Farmers Market Total
Alabama-1 46 52 293 309 32 1 733
Alabama-2 49 51 261 328 17 - 706
Alabama-3 47 47 241 281 17 - 633
Alabama-4 43 52 271 278 22 1 667
Alabama-5 52 44 229 250 25 3 603
Alabama-6 52 55 191 187 13 1 499
Alabama-7 37 47 244 334 13 5 680
Alaska, At-Large 42 45 146 229 23 5 490
Arizona-1 57 28 146 276 13 3 523
Arizona-2 50 36 140 198 17 6 447
Arizona-3 47 13 137 201 12 3 413
Arizona-4 46 23 143 218 15 6 451
Arizona-5 60 37 89 121 15 - 322
Arizona-6 59 33 109 152 9 3 365
Arizona-7 46 19 166 281 12 3 527
Arizona-8 54 28 89 104 12 1 288
Arizona-9 57 31 130 240 8 6 472
Arkansas-1 53 49 230 358 12 3 705
Arkansas-2 64 15 218 276 12 2 587
Arkansas-3 85 23 215 215 25 9 572
Arkansas-4 46 45 272 286 15 3 667
California-1 35 62 160 342 27 24 650
California-2 51 69 135 229 18 32 534
California-3 36 48 153 266 27 8 538
California-4 34 62 122 229 18 14 479
California-5 38 56 104 205 12 19 434
California-6 34 50 167 280 18 10 559
California-7 37 49 114 230 16 10 456
California-8 30 38 141 310 14 7 540
California-9 29 50 127 280 18 5 509
California-10 43 49 175 312 26 2 607
California-11 33 47 129 158 19 11 397
California-12 32 28 183 145 16 17 421
California-13 31 46 169 219 24 17 506
California-14 41 44 102 90 4 12 293
California-15 32 49 89 117 6 7 300
California-16 37 30 213 405 48 4 737
California-17 53 49 81 111 7 8 309
California-18 30 50 84 90 3 17 274
California-19 35 37 79 162 13 7 333
California-20 43 50 149 188 21 13 464
California-21 42 29 243 377 25 4 720
California-22 54 46 191 313 29 6 639
California-23 40 44 160 329 22 2 597
California-24 45 55 124 188 5 12 429
California-25 45 32 84 173 3 3 340
California-26 46 51 134 153 7 5 396
California-27 48 36 89 103 11 8 295
California-28 38 47 154 147 22 12 420
California-29 35 29 101 203 16 2 386
California-30 48 40 101 160 7 9 365
California-31 38 60 116 298 9 7 528
California-32 43 45 124 226 14 4 456
California-33 50 43 82 80 1 17 273
California-34 38 24 183 306 21 9 581
California-35 38 38 103 298 11 4 492
California-36 45 47 161 214 6 5 478
California-37 34 35 138 231 11 11 460
California-38 44 41 113 214 16 5 433
California-39 44 42 85 135 1 3 310
California-40 29 35 215 421 40 6 746
California-41 38 35 110 211 8 6 408
California-42 32 49 87 148 3 1 320
California-43 46 31 126 322 17 7 549
California-44 30 34 138 302 18 6 528
California-45 46 42 72 72 - 1 233
California-46 41 36 113 226 12 3 431
California-47 48 38 117 238 4 4 449
California-48 50 51 85 122 9 3 320
California-49 39 55 98 118 6 1 317
California-50 43 44 105 212 3 1 408
California-51 46 41 145 283 6 1 522
California-52 44 55 63 152 3 3 320
California-53 41 32 78 228 3 3 385
Colorado-1 50 34 103 220 15 6 428
Colorado-2 63 31 67 118 15 10 304
Colorado-3 67 33 167 189 27 21 504
Colorado-4 45 36 124 166 21 2 394
Colorado-5 44 33 100 210 25 4 416
Colorado-6 60 23 114 161 17 2 377
Colorado-7 61 30 77 192 18 10 388
Connecticut-1 49 48 227 255 10 9 598
Connecticut-2 40 37 147 211 9 4 448
Connecticut-3 46 30 170 259 7 6 518
Connecticut-4 34 34 121 142 4 6 341
Connecticut-5 47 39 179 215 11 6 497
Delaware, At-Large 46 71 305 302 26 8 758
District of Columbia, At-Large 27 25 135 188 18 32 425
Florida-1 42 50 199 306 29 2 628
Florida-2 44 60 234 319 32 1 690
Florida-3 31 68 227 320 20 4 670
Florida-4 32 71 166 240 29 3 541
Florida-5 31 55 276 444 51 3 860
Florida-6 24 70 210 278 22 2 606
Florida-7 40 71 142 242 11 2 508
Florida-8 29 62 192 298 11 4 596
Florida-9 38 75 233 272 13 1 632
Florida-10 41 64 230 304 17 - 656
Florida-11 27 56 200 238 25 4 550
Florida-12 33 60 169 227 16 1 506
Florida-13 34 72 204 302 25 2 639
Florida-14 44 62 221 297 21 2 647
Florida-15 40 56 198 265 16 2 577
Florida-16 43 67 167 229 8 3 517
Florida-17 32 58 197 256 16 6 565
Florida-18 20 71 149 189 13 - 442
Florida-19 47 72 204 238 7 1 569
Florida-20 37 45 185 251 9 2 529
Florida-21 38 68 147 145 2 - 400
Florida-22 38 70 133 161 7 - 409
Florida-23 38 71 126 112 6 1 354
Florida-24 30 52 178 182 22 2 466
Florida-25 28 61 158 133 22 - 402
Florida-26 28 65 150 124 19 1 387
Florida-27 18 61 165 119 17 1 381
Georgia-1 51 40 232 440 44 4 811
Georgia-2 42 42 295 453 29 5 866
Georgia-3 35 58 229 331 9 3 665
Georgia-4 42 38 201 252 19 4 556
Georgia-5 45 37 181 367 27 12 669
Georgia-6 56 52 121 125 2 2 358
Georgia-7 62 52 181 194 9 2 500
Georgia-8 50 38 276 473 29 3 869
Georgia-9 39 46 249 366 9 - 709
Georgia-10 31 53 196 334 13 5 632
Georgia-11 44 50 166 201 6 2 469
Georgia-12 45 37 251 469 32 4 838
Georgia-13 47 36 208 285 17 4 597
Georgia-14 36 52 223 399 14 3 727
Guam, At-Large 14 5 88 102 17 - 226
Hawaii-1 48 16 117 202 57 6 446
Hawaii-2 79 21 114 194 28 21 457
Idaho-1 49 49 118 278 34 11 539
Idaho-2 49 43 136 258 36 10 532
Idaho-5 - - - 1 - - 1
Illinois-1 39 46 180 239 9 9 522
Illinois-2 30 34 191 258 7 4 524
Illinois-3 38 35 163 170 13 2 421
Illinois-4 53 31 225 203 33 3 548
Illinois-5 45 35 112 138 8 5 343
Illinois-6 47 45 97 107 2 - 298
Illinois-7 33 30 224 292 15 7 601
Illinois-8 53 42 144 148 18 1 406
Illinois-9 46 44 156 117 9 9 381
Illinois-10 47 40 147 142 9 1 386
Illinois-11 40 35 143 179 8 1 406
Illinois-12 57 28 211 331 17 8 652
Illinois-13 60 23 205 331 14 8 641
Illinois-14 29 31 85 132 3 3 283
Illinois-15 46 28 230 304 23 1 632
Illinois-16 54 25 175 315 8 1 578
Illinois-17 47 29 227 336 19 4 662
Illinois-18 59 24 193 284 13 4 577
Indiana-1 33 49 195 270 8 6 561
Indiana-2 43 37 244 241 7 3 575
Indiana-3 52 24 215 235 14 5 545
Indiana-4 56 28 189 280 16 7 576
Indiana-5 59 30 168 212 15 6 490
Indiana-6 42 28 205 285 16 13 589
Indiana-7 44 29 254 303 17 7 654
Indiana-8 66 31 207 243 21 4 572
Indiana-9 61 18 181 227 14 9 510
Iowa-1 74 26 184 368 27 6 685
Iowa-2 86 20 182 386 19 1 694
Iowa-3 101 16 171 361 17 4 670
Iowa-4 95 19 218 312 18 1 663
Kansas-1 55 24 218 232 29 4 562
Kansas-2 46 27 180 199 15 9 476
Kansas-3 56 47 126 153 16 6 404
Kansas-4 59 20 196 199 28 5 507
Kentucky-1 51 56 278 347 20 3 755
Kentucky-2 50 54 230 340 17 5 696
Kentucky-3 64 24 229 294 14 5 630
Kentucky-4 50 20 197 313 9 3 592
Kentucky-5 41 81 318 505 25 9 979
Kentucky-6 54 32 204 360 16 19 685
Louisiana-1 73 35 269 214 21 5 617
Louisiana-2 43 35 335 337 29 8 787
Louisiana-3 56 59 339 289 47 2 792
Louisiana-4 41 44 248 296 20 3 652
Louisiana-5 44 54 298 323 28 4 751
Louisiana-6 73 34 285 251 23 1 667
Maine-1 56 25 203 271 14 21 590
Maine-2 68 32 245 385 29 24 783
Maryland-1 30 53 162 237 20 2 504
Maryland-2 56 42 168 246 16 2 530
Maryland-3 66 30 129 176 9 4 414
Maryland-4 59 33 144 158 15 1 410
Maryland-5 59 38 109 121 15 3 345
Maryland-6 54 39 154 134 13 2 396
Maryland-7 35 31 195 324 30 8 623
Maryland-8 53 41 98 85 8 4 289
Massachusetts-1 49 38 219 383 8 16 713
Massachusetts-2 48 37 175 274 7 11 552
Massachusetts-3 44 17 204 239 8 3 515
Massachusetts-4 40 46 134 201 4 5 430
Massachusetts-5 32 34 135 176 4 11 392
Massachusetts-6 54 28 164 224 5 6 481
Massachusetts-7 34 36 231 335 14 11 661
Massachusetts-8 45 43 158 255 6 11 518
Massachusetts-9 40 56 186 307 6 12 607
Michigan-1 76 57 231 298 26 22 710
Michigan-2 52 34 193 286 30 12 607
Michigan-3 53 30 186 286 23 9 587
Michigan-4 56 39 212 364 19 20 710
Michigan-5 51 35 207 454 23 6 776
Michigan-6 49 44 196 327 14 11 641
Michigan-7 45 20 154 282 15 14 530
Michigan-8 55 18 141 202 5 10 431
Michigan-9 63 29 193 415 22 4 726
Michigan-10 53 26 177 329 15 6 606
Michigan-11 79 28 136 212 8 2 465
Michigan-12 57 31 209 384 26 10 717
Michigan-13 33 38 207 641 49 9 977
Michigan-14 36 30 214 485 35 4 804
Minnesota-1 53 30 137 200 31 12 463
Minnesota-2 49 36 90 152 27 4 358
Minnesota-3 44 42 88 122 18 4 318
Minnesota-4 40 39 130 162 19 5 395
Minnesota-5 32 43 157 172 17 18 439
Minnesota-6 46 18 90 175 24 8 361
Minnesota-7 50 24 227 195 27 14 537
Minnesota-8 44 43 146 267 25 17 542
Mississippi-1 54 41 272 303 13 5 688
Mississippi-2 51 23 269 532 14 3 892
Mississippi-3 58 31 253 355 25 2 724
Mississippi-4 41 44 307 330 31 4 757
Missouri-1 43 35 229 317 13 5 642
Missouri-2 89 28 115 154 6 - 392
Missouri-3 62 32 159 272 8 2 535
Missouri-4 43 43 190 314 20 10 620
Missouri-5 46 52 199 310 19 5 631
Missouri-6 45 37 191 254 19 3 549
Missouri-7 55 53 225 320 28 7 688
Missouri-8 48 66 249 306 18 5 692
Montana, At-Large 72 80 174 353 49 25 753
Nebraska-1 46 26 155 131 11 5 374
Nebraska-2 65 16 124 165 17 2 389
Nebraska-3 47 29 237 197 17 - 527
Nevada-1 59 20 166 296 8 1 550
Nevada-2 41 51 108 286 27 4 517
Nevada-3 46 32 124 153 7 2 364
Nevada-4 43 26 135 187 11 2 404
New Hampshire-1 67 26 155 219 7 12 486
New Hampshire-2 59 31 174 232 10 16 522
New Jersey-1 42 32 244 263 22 1 604
New Jersey-2 36 43 261 233 16 1 590
New Jersey-3 47 26 160 190 10 1 434
New Jersey-4 49 35 160 129 9 1 383
New Jersey-5 50 29 149 72 8 3 311
New Jersey-6 43 31 210 154 12 4 454
New Jersey-7 53 32 117 72 - 1 275
New Jersey-8 51 37 301 235 38 3 665
New Jersey-9 46 22 328 180 26 - 602
New Jersey-10 37 19 360 285 28 6 735
New Jersey-11 49 29 123 59 4 - 264
New Jersey-12 45 38 197 152 12 3 447
New Mexico-1 45 32 139 188 30 10 444
New Mexico-2 43 31 213 274 19 12 592
New Mexico-3 49 29 160 233 22 16 509
New York-1 43 46 135 139 2 2 367
New York-2 45 27 116 131 6 - 325
New York-3 55 33 102 71 5 - 266
New York-4 41 37 138 160 12 4 392
New York-5 35 40 286 236 34 2 633
New York-6 48 38 201 125 20 3 435
New York-7 40 43 464 343 89 3 982
New York-8 39 57 318 413 29 5 861
New York-9 29 59 336 359 55 3 841
New York-10 48 41 286 168 49 3 595
New York-11 32 33 301 264 30 1 661
New York-12 50 44 236 147 11 2 490
New York-13 45 50 353 377 53 9 887
New York-14 47 39 318 255 32 2 693
New York-15 33 67 518 504 75 4 1,201
New York-16 25 46 259 190 23 5 548
New York-17 43 44 145 79 12 4 327
New York-18 36 43 143 164 15 8 409
New York-19 34 54 207 316 16 16 643
New York-20 40 49 213 338 8 7 655
New York-21 40 65 241 339 14 12 711
New York-22 28 55 255 349 17 7 711
New York-23 33 64 226 255 12 16 606
New York-24 26 61 222 303 12 5 629
New York-25 25 45 185 289 15 6 565
New York-26 26 56 268 429 26 7 812
New York-27 22 69 187 187 23 6 494
North Carolina-1 40 64 254 411 20 6 795
North Carolina-2 52 62 180 262 18 2 576
North Carolina-3 44 83 240 302 29 5 703
North Carolina-4 70 75 178 209 23 7 562
North Carolina-5 37 73 234 336 18 6 704
North Carolina-6 28 63 221 320 18 3 653
North Carolina-7 44 84 266 309 43 2 748
North Carolina-8 40 76 225 261 23 3 628
North Carolina-9 54 70 216 321 17 2 680
North Carolina-10 37 78 255 376 8 12 766
North Carolina-11 25 91 228 271 16 7 638
North Carolina-12 60 74 219 293 11 6 663
North Carolina-13 47 90 258 302 12 4 713
North Dakota, At-Large 72 26 192 173 50 7 520
Ohio-1 53 18 206 253 18 6 554
Ohio-2 52 28 264 244 6 5 599
Ohio-3 56 35 279 368 7 7 752
Ohio-4 48 44 218 239 14 6 569
Ohio-5 52 32 196 230 12 1 523
Ohio-6 43 43 261 329 18 1 695
Ohio-7 46 54 187 190 20 4 501
Ohio-8 40 24 198 247 3 5 517
Ohio-9 42 43 220 374 13 7 699
Ohio-10 51 27 217 239 7 2 543
Ohio-11 42 56 209 383 47 16 753
Ohio-12 58 20 162 189 5 6 440
Ohio-13 67 36 273 290 14 9 689
Ohio-14 54 59 192 178 14 6 503
Ohio-15 57 25 187 216 10 7 502
Ohio-16 63 55 169 186 7 3 483
Oklahoma-1 63 35 222 245 18 4 587
Oklahoma-2 48 37 257 453 14 12 821
Oklahoma-3 34 57 222 338 22 1 674
Oklahoma-4 49 40 223 296 14 9 631
Oklahoma-5 51 36 247 375 7 4 720
Oregon-1 51 49 117 223 32 10 482
Oregon-2 47 64 164 387 51 15 728
Oregon-3 40 53 147 389 32 18 679
Oregon-4 47 54 157 439 37 22 756
Oregon-5 47 48 129 324 46 17 611
Pennsylvania-1 36 54 146 135 13 - 384
Pennsylvania-2 34 39 422 301 21 - 817
Pennsylvania-3 27 31 447 237 49 1 792
Pennsylvania-4 36 55 118 132 7 1 349
Pennsylvania-5 32 44 277 219 27 4 603
Pennsylvania-6 29 51 183 161 9 4 437
Pennsylvania-7 34 56 182 218 14 4 508
Pennsylvania-8 41 45 236 243 17 3 585
Pennsylvania-9 27 73 173 214 26 3 516
Pennsylvania-10 42 57 197 281 18 1 596
Pennsylvania-11 42 50 136 220 11 - 459
Pennsylvania-12 29 58 208 226 19 2 542
Pennsylvania-13 35 47 217 196 18 4 517
Pennsylvania-14 53 28 207 234 15 2 539
Pennsylvania-15 37 49 244 219 17 1 567
Pennsylvania-16 49 36 253 244 20 5 607
Pennsylvania-17 74 27 184 181 7 3 476
Pennsylvania-18 53 26 219 250 11 7 566
Rhode Island-1 21 33 197 172 8 12 443
Rhode Island-2 28 31 182 174 12 11 438
South Carolina-1 63 60 149 225 27 1 525
South Carolina-2 45 63 199 319 21 2 649
South Carolina-3 24 59 233 341 11 4 672
South Carolina-4 35 73 232 317 13 5 675
South Carolina-5 37 59 206 362 22 2 688
South Carolina-6 27 47 260 440 34 5 813
South Carolina-7 51 83 275 381 25 1 816
South Dakota, At-Large 58 32 246 330 40 9 715
Tennessee-1 33 69 239 377 18 11 747
Tennessee-2 44 60 190 323 17 3 637
Tennessee-3 33 71 239 406 16 7 772
Tennessee-4 46 53 274 357 20 1 751
Tennessee-5 55 47 276 273 12 4 667
Tennessee-6 50 54 241 334 13 3 695
Tennessee-7 44 55 207 271 15 3 595
Tennessee-8 47 37 195 269 10 3 561
Tennessee-9 45 31 222 511 15 4 828
Texas-1 51 42 216 218 15 3 545
Texas-2 48 33 127 170 7 - 385
Texas-3 66 38 140 146 11 - 401
Texas-4 35 48 223 277 17 1 601
Texas-5 40 40 194 262 10 2 548
Texas-6 41 37 166 219 5 2 470
Texas-7 46 40 154 157 11 2 410
Texas-8 50 31 178 233 11 1 504
Texas-9 39 31 163 295 16 1 545
Texas-10 51 43 143 239 14 2 492
Texas-11 36 40 209 341 14 1 641
Texas-12 48 33 182 263 7 1 534
Texas-13 28 50 224 288 14 1 605
Texas-14 39 34 205 294 23 2 597
Texas-15 25 31 250 386 24 2 718
Texas-16 49 26 203 250 30 - 558
Texas-17 35 24 163 300 7 1 530
Texas-18 35 31 172 385 22 5 650
Texas-19 29 46 201 306 11 2 595
Texas-20 24 30 153 329 18 3 557
Texas-21 27 42 118 230 6 3 426
Texas-22 50 38 147 168 6 - 409
Texas-23 36 24 188 310 18 1 577
Texas-24 49 38 145 181 3 2 418
Texas-25 31 38 129 248 9 1 456
Texas-26 46 35 131 126 11 1 350
Texas-27 26 34 183 392 24 - 659
Texas-28 28 30 218 363 16 - 655
Texas-29 46 37 186 393 21 2 685
Texas-30 44 33 158 314 8 2 559
Texas-31 31 36 140 293 15 1 516
Texas-32 55 46 153 158 6 - 418
Texas-33 52 27 205 336 6 1 627
Texas-34 21 28 256 356 35 2 698
Texas-35 22 35 162 403 11 3 636
Texas-36 46 33 232 282 23 1 617
Utah-1 52 20 76 158 29 6 341
Utah-2 48 35 122 170 19 11 405
Utah-3 49 36 75 120 18 6 304
Utah-4 47 24 108 183 20 1 383
Vermont, At-Large 35 55 210 315 12 38 665
Virgin Islands, At-Large 15 3 23 28 3 - 72
Virginia-1 47 53 147 269 15 9 540
Virginia-2 50 53 169 243 19 5 539
Virginia-3 51 61 204 383 24 1 724
Virginia-4 33 51 209 380 25 8 706
Virginia-5 36 53 208 365 10 9 681
Virginia-6 54 53 212 340 12 15 686
Virginia-7 53 64 177 213 8 6 521
Virginia-8 63 39 131 125 4 14 376
Virginia-9 41 71 246 448 17 13 836
Virginia-10 61 30 93 121 4 4 313
Virginia-11 65 38 99 81 1 6 290
Washington-1 36 37 78 159 21 7 338
Washington-2 55 40 109 237 33 12 486
Washington-3 38 36 98 286 27 9 494
Washington-4 39 48 144 316 42 9 598
Washington-5 33 43 117 247 38 14 492
Washington-6 44 40 92 290 39 12 517
Washington-7 49 45 122 192 24 17 449
Washington-8 35 36 82 183 23 10 369
Washington-9 50 39 145 222 24 9 489
Washington-10 37 40 108 266 30 6 487
West Virginia-1 53 31 214 330 9 7 644
West Virginia-2 42 36 227 331 14 6 656
West Virginia-3 34 47 274 401 13 9 778
Wisconsin-1 73 23 117 233 21 4 471
Wisconsin-2 60 18 131 213 27 13 462
Wisconsin-3 63 24 152 225 32 8 504
Wisconsin-4 42 23 178 396 8 5 652
Wisconsin-5 89 22 94 183 16 5 409
Wisconsin-6 68 22 131 191 20 5 437
Wisconsin-7 55 38 181 295 34 8 611
Wisconsin-8 60 22 166 226 19 8 501
Wyoming, At-Large 48 29 81 167 20 7 352
United States 19,861 18,395 80,715 112,018 7,796 2,500 241,285

Source: USDA Food and Nutrition Service, December 4, 2019

End Notes

[1] U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service, “SNAP Retailer Management 2018 Annual Report,” 2018, https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/media/file/2018SNAPRetailerManagementYearEndSummary.pdf; USDA Economic Research Service, “Nominal food and alcohol expenditures, with taxes and tips, for all purchasers,” updated August 1, 2019, https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-expenditure-series/food-expenditure-series/#Food%20Expenditures. Food for consumption at home includes food purchased at food and other stores, food purchased for home delivery and mail order, and food purchased from farmers, manufacturers, and wholesalers. It does not include food produced at home or donated foods.

[2] CBPP calculation of the USDA Food and Nutrition Service, “SNAP Retailer Management 2019 Annual Report,” https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/resource-files/2019-SNAP-Retailer-Management-Year-End-Summary.pdf and the U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population as of July 1, 2019.

[3] Smaller stores include all authorized SNAP retailers other than superstores, supermarkets, wholesalers, and large and medium grocery stores.

[4] Patricia M. Anderson and Kristin F. Butcher, “The Relationships Among SNAP Benefits, Grocery Spending, Diet Quality, and the Adequacy of Low-Income Families’ Resources,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, June 14, 2016, https://www.cbpp.org/research/the-relationships-among-snap-benefits-grocery-spending-diet-quality-and-the-adequacy-of-low.

[5] Patrick Canning and Rosanna Mentzer Morrison, “Quantifying the Impact of SNAP Benefits on the U.S. Economy and Jobs,” USDA Economic Research Service, Jul 18, 2019, https://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2019/july/quantifying-the-impact-of-snap-benefits-on-the-us-economy-and-jobs/.

[6] For more information, see https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/resource-files/2019-SNAP-Retailer-Management-Year-End-Summary.pdf.

[7] Testimony of Jennifer Hatcher, Food Marketing Institute, hearing on “The Next Farm Bill, The Future of SNAP,” before the House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Nutrition, March 28, 2017.