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SNAP Boosts Retailers and Local Economies

UPDATED
April 6, 2018

 SNAP accounts for about 10 percent of the food that U.S. families buy for their homes. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, previously food stamps) is an important public-private partnership that helps families afford a basic diet, generates business for retailers, and boosts local economies.  SNAP accounts for about 10 percent of the food that U.S. families buy for their homes.  Participants purchase groceries with SNAP benefits at about 260,000 retailers — from superstores to farmers’ markets — across the country.  By increasing low-income households’ purchasing power so they can buy the food they need directly from stores, SNAP integrates economically marginalized households with almost no government administrative overhead resulting from food distribution.

SNAP redemptions are a meaningful share of food purchases in our country.  In fiscal year 2017, SNAP participants redeemed about $63 billion in SNAP benefits for food purchases, supporting retailers of every size.  In 2014 (the most current year available), the roughly $70 billion in SNAP redemptions accounted for approximately 10 percent of expenditures on food for consumption at home.[1]

SNAP generates business for retailers of all types and sizes.  SNAP retailers comprise big- box superstores and major national grocery chains as well as small specialty stores, convenience stores, and farmers’ markets.  Between 2013 and 2017, the number of authorized retailers increased by 4 percent.[2]  Recent growth in the number of participating retailers has made SNAP an integral part of the food retail industry.

Figure 1
Over 80% of SNAP Benefits Are Used at Larger Stores

The large number and wide variety of authorized retailers also helps ensure that low-income families across the country can regularly access a store where they can redeem their SNAP dollars for food.  Though SNAP participants in some areas of the country, particularly rural areas, still have inadequate access to food stores, most can easily redeem their benefits.  Nationally, there are an average of about 79 SNAP authorized retailers per 100,000 people.[3]

SNAP provides important support for small business.  While over 80 percent of SNAP benefits are used at larger stores, including superstores (like Wal-Mart, Target, and Costco) and supermarkets (like Food Lion and Safeway), the vast majority of SNAP authorized retailers — about 80 percent — are smaller stores.[4]  These include many locally owned businesses, such as private groceries, convenience stores, dairies, butchers, bakeries, and farm stands.  For these small businesses, SNAP is an important revenue source — particularly in high-poverty areas, where SNAP purchases can account for a significant share of a retailer’s total sales.

SNAP increases both food and non-food purchases.  Households participating in SNAP spend more on food.[5]  But SNAP also increases their overall purchasing power, allowing them to meet other basic needs.  By providing more resources for food, SNAP helps free up cash for poor households to buy other essential items, like diapers and medication.  As a result, retail sales increase, benefiting stores that sell both food and non-food items.

SNAP helps local economies.  Because most households redeem their monthly SNAP benefits quickly and because the program helps struggling households purchase adequate food, SNAP is one of the most effective forms of economic stimulus during a downturn.  Economists estimate that, in a weak economy, every SNAP dollar that households redeem expands the economy by about $1.70.[6]  In 2009, the peak year of the last recession, $50 billion in SNAP benefits were spent in local stores, generating about $85 billion in local economic activity, even as the overall economy was struggling.

SNAP’s consistent standards create efficiencies for business.  In order to accept SNAP benefits, retailers must apply and meet certain standards.  Qualifying stores must sell food for preparation and consumption at home and meet one of two criteria.  A retailer must either (1) continuously stock a certain variety of staple foods, including perishables, or (2) have more than 50 percent of its gross retail sales from staple foods.  While most authorized stores qualify by meeting the first criterion, specialty stores, like butcher shops, are often authorized under the second.  The USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service carefully and continuously monitors retailers in order to protect the program and promote integrity and compliance among retailers.[7]

SNAP also has national standards about which products can be purchased with SNAP, and how benefits are redeemed.  This uniformity promotes efficiency and limits costs for the private sector.  Retailers with multiple locations and presence in multiple states can employ consistent operational practices and equipment across their stores.  The Food Marketing Institute (FMI), a trade association that represents food retailers and wholesalers, recognizes that this benefits the industry and customers alike.  As FMI Chief Public Policy Officer and Senior Vice President Jennifer Hatcher recently told Congress:

We now have a national program with nationally-approved products that is consistent from state to state.  The evolution to 100% interoperable electronic transactions … has made the program much easier for operations and compliance and much simpler for customers.… [T]he efficiencies and simplicity of the administrative function of SNAP that have achieved easier operation and compliance and a simpler customer experience have happened because of the consistency of a national program.[8]

Additional Resources

Appendix

  TABLE 1
Number of SNAP Retailers by Store Type and State
State Super-store Super-market Grocery Store Convenience Store Other Retailer Farmers’ Market Total
Alabama  326  340  1,847  2,393  512  27  5,445
Alaska  39  47  178  233  32  16  545
Arizona  480  238  1,162  1,928  145  37  3,990
Arkansas  271  111  945  1,326  114  41  2,808
California  2,085  2,152  7,336  12,286  990  505  25,354
Colorado  384  211  748  1,225  204  78  2,850
Connecticut  215  189  878  1,151  99  48  2,580
Delaware  45  65  332  312  35  13  802
District of Columbia  25  26  150  185  44  35  465
Florida  891  1,626  5,220  7,401  761  89  15,988
Georgia  646  610  3,078  5,278  521  100  10,233
Hawaii  119  30  251  407  161  59  1,027
Idaho  94  82  259  536  90  27  1,088
Illinois  855  620  3,288  4,006  343  114  9,226
Indiana  454  269  1,829  2,427  225  75  5,279
Iowa  344  61  712  1,470  305  20  2,912
Kansas  218  113  710  833  132  30  2,036
Kentucky  322  269  1,439  2,268  298  72  4,668
Louisiana  335  251  1,846  2,101  249  28  4,810
Maine  127  46  442  726  144  54  1,539
Maryland  411  303  1,257  1,548  289  49  3,857
Massachusetts  379  332  1,678  2,476  379  144  5,388
Michigan  772  416  2,710  5,333  515  204  9,950
Minnesota  349  251  1,043  1,468  260  101  3,472
Mississippi  222  119  1,230  1,809  189  23  3,592
Missouri  431  347  1,543  2,378  232  65  4,996
Montana  72  67  174  374  57  19  763
Nebraska  154  70  515  430  88  19  1,276
Nevada  190  113  523  948  56  17  1,847
New Hampshire  132  51  312  490  57  34  1,076
New Jersey  534  345  2,868  2,030  248  50  6,075
New Mexico  142  82  504  722  86  54  1,590
New York  985  1,294  8,088  6,472  970  228  18,037
North Carolina  583  958  3,083  4,438  490  111  9,663
North Dakota  67  27  176  193  58  7  528
Ohio  813  519  3,440  4,406  370  134  9,682
Oklahoma  240  200  1,148  1,842  131  38  3,599
Oregon  220  261  694  1,811  326  109  3,421
Pennsylvania  713  790  4,422  3,774  480  78  10,257
Rhode Island  46  60  404  377  37  30  954
South Carolina  281  456  1,599  2,717  327  40  5,420
South Dakota  58  24  262  332  58  15  749
Tennessee  407  452  2,239  3,506  247  75  6,926
Texas  1,409  1,236  6,264  10,384  707  80  20,080
Utah  195  108  399  639  102  25  1,468
Vermont  34  52  195  345  43  50  719
Virginia  568  562  1,898  3,083  233  126  6,470
Washington  403  388  1,095  2,563  392  114  4,955
West Virginia  132  111  707  1,112  71  38  2,171
Wisconsin  516  168  1,140  1,996  280  96  4,196
Wyoming  46  29  82  185  25  11  378
Guam  14  6  120  89  21  1  251
Virgin Islands  13  4  35  25  12  -    89
United States  19,806  17,557  84,497  118,787  13,240  3,653  257,540

Source: Food and Nutrition Services, USDA, December 13, 2017

Table 2
Number of SNAP Retailers by Store Type and Congressional District
Congressional District Super-store Super-market Grocery Store Convenience Store Other Farmers’ Market Total
Alabama-1 46 53  341 368 67 2 877
Alabama-2 47 50  266 383 80 1 827
Alabama-3 44 48  262 334 70 2 760
Alabama-4 46 50  280 349 90 1 816
Alabama-5 52 41  226 308 55 6 688
Alabama-6 54 52  200 217 58 6 587
Alabama-7 37 46  272 434 92 9 890
Alaska, At-Large  39 47  178 233 32 16 545
Arizona-1 58 27  141 285 13 2 526
Arizona-2 51 37  138 210 20 6 462
Arizona-3 46 12  145 204 22 4 433
Arizona-4 47 21  138 244 17 7 474
Arizona-5 61 33  91 136 14 1 336
Arizona-6 60 32  107 168 12 4 383
Arizona-7 46 17  172 317 19 6 577
Arizona-8 54 28  86 111 14 1 294
Arizona-9 57 31  144 253 14 6 505
Arkansas-1 66 37  236 427 26 3 795
Arkansas-2 72 9  216 323 28 10 658
Arkansas-3 85 23  224 228 33 18 611
Arkansas-4 48 42  269 348 27 10 744
California-1 32 64  153 374 44 34 701
California-2 46 66  140 243 38 33 566
California-3 36 45  141 296 30 16 564
California-4 32 59  128 240 24 23 506
California-5 42 54  114 214 18 22 464
California-6 34 44  180 301 33 15 607
California-7 38 49  114 234 22 10 467
California-8 29 37  138 320 18 8 550
California-9 29 45  126 280 23 5 508
California-10 41 52  184 332 27 4 640
California-11 33 48  137 163 21 13 415
California-12 31 30  198 154 23 13 449
California-13 26 46  181 255 27 18 553
California-14 36 43  107 92 6 11 295
California-15 29 45  98 137 5 10 324
California-16 35 30  232 427 57 4 785
California-17 44 52  93 115 8 9 321
California-18 30 52  85 96 5 11 279
California-19 33 36  83 167 17 9 345
California-20 39 50  168 196 38 16 507
California-21 40 18  270 418 30 6 782
California-22 56 44  212 342 30 6 690
California-23 39 40  158 339 27 8 611
California-24 46 50  116 199 9 13 433
California-25 43 32  94 173 4 4 350
California-26 45 45  139 163 15 9 416
California-27 46 33  103 116 13 7 318
California-28 39 43  182 165 32 15 476
California-29 35 25  107 229 20 2 418
California-30 47 40  112 148 7 9 363
California-31 40 54  136 308 14 9 561
California-32 45 39  151 236 18 7 496
California-33 48 38  84 75 3 18 266
California-34 37 20  228 329 35 13 662
California-35 40 29  118 308 13 6 514
California-36 47 44  163 227 8 5 494
California-37 33 29  170 260 14 13 519
California-38 44 36  124 238 19 7 468
California-39 46 37  95 147 5 2 332
California-40 29 22  287 449 44 7 838
California-41 37 28  120 218 18 6 427
California-42 31 43  90 153 6 1 324
California-43 47 22  150 350 23 7 599
California-44 31 26  187 327 28 5 604
California-45 46 40  72 70 0 0 228
California-46 41 32  138 244 17 5 477
California-47 47 35  134 259 12 7 494
California-48 51 46  89 127 9 3 325
California-49 43 48  93 119 9 2 314
California-50 42 45  102 226 8 3 426
California-51 47 38  159 294 10 5 553
California-52 41 52  67 158 3 5 326
California-53 41 32  86 236 3 6 404
Colorado-1 50 32  104 227 24 11 448
Colorado-2 61 31  66 106 23 11 298
Colorado-3 66 32  152 204 52 31 537
Colorado-4 44 36  122 149 30 6 387
Colorado-5 44 27  95 200 32 8 406
Colorado-6 60 24  123 153 20 1 381
Colorado-7 59 29  86 186 23 10 393
Connecticut-1 49 50  243 272 23 10 647
Connecticut-2 40 36  151 237 31 13 508
Connecticut-3 44 29  176 268 15 9 541
Connecticut-4 34 35  133 157 12 8 379
Connecticut-5 48 39  175 217 18 8 505
Delaware, At-Large  45 65  332 312 35 13 802
District of Columbia, At-Large  25 26  150 185 44 35 465
Florida-1 41 51  238 305 44 2 681
Florida-2 43 56  234 380 62 5 780
Florida-3 32 65  228 361 41 9 736
Florida-4 31 67  166 265 36 6 571
Florida-5 30 53  276 544 95 3 1001
Florida-6 23 68  204 336 32 3 666
Florida-7 34 69  154 260 17 3 537
Florida-8 29 60  197 353 17 4 660
Florida-9 35 73  225 297 15 3 648
Florida-10 36 58  235 328 21 1 679
Florida-11 27 53  198 270 36 3 587
Florida-12 32 55  168 248 21 2 526
Florida-13 33 70  216 343 39 5 706
Florida-14 45 51  225 336 37 4 698
Florida-15 38 57  185 314 19 2 615
Florida-16 42 62  167 263 17 4 555
Florida-17 32 52  198 272 23 7 584
Florida-18 22 71  152 214 14 1 474
Florida-19 47 67  206 253 13 3 589
Florida-20 37 45  208 265 10 4 569
Florida-21 41 56  152 175 6 1 431
Florida-22 35 69  137 208 7 3 459
Florida-23 32 67  126 127 10 3 365
Florida-24 27 51  215 231 29 4 557
Florida-25 28 56  172 183 43 2 484
Florida-26 22 64  157 131 32 1 407
Florida-27 17 60  181 139 25 1 423
Georgia-1 54 38  235 471 69 7 874
Georgia-2 51 37  306 535 75 10 1014
Georgia-3 35 54  227 397 30 9 752
Georgia-4 44 37  216 290 32 4 623
Georgia-5 48 32  194 435 56 24 789
Georgia-6 57 51  137 141 4 6 396
Georgia-7 60 53  180 224 15 3 535
Georgia-8 57 35  270 528 61 8 959
Georgia-9 39 46  254 386 20 5 750
Georgia-10 32 52  206 382 35 6 713
Georgia-11 42 49  158 242 8 1 500
Georgia-12 46 40  242 509 66 7 910
Georgia-13 43 35  208 303 25 4 618
Georgia-14 38 51  245 435 25 6 800
Hawaii-1 46 13  135 191 96 23 504
Hawaii-2 73 17  116 216 65 36 523
Idaho-1 44 44  128 271 45 16 548
Idaho-2 50 38  131 265 45 11 540
Illinois-1 41 43  214 237 16 15 566
Illinois-2 30 37  200 273 18 4 562
Illinois-3 38 35  180 169 15 7 444
Illinois-4 52 33  285 194 42 6 612
Illinois-5 50 35  125 142 11 8 371
Illinois-6 47 44  90 104 6 4 295
Illinois-7 36 33  274 262 22 9 636
Illinois-8 56 39  146 158 26 1 426
Illinois-9 47 43  168 114 11 10 393
Illinois-10 49 36  149 144 15 2 395
Illinois-11 46 37  149 177 8 2 419
Illinois-12 55 36  213 330 24 8 666
Illinois-13 64 26  203 315 21 10 639
Illinois-14 31 31  87 118 10 4 281
Illinois-15 50 28  219 318 30 6 651
Illinois-16 53 27  171 316 18 4 589
Illinois-17 51 28  234 344 30 10 697
Illinois-18 59 29  181 291 20 4 584
Indiana-1 33 49  207 270 17 5 581
Indiana-2 44 39  232 272 12 8 607
Indiana-3 51 25  212 250 29 9 576
Indiana-4 56 26  177 290 25 5 579
Indiana-5 59 27  161 213 23 9 492
Indiana-6 42 26  208 297 32 15 620
Indiana-7 43 28  258 322 34 6 691
Indiana-8 67 33  203 259 29 6 597
Indiana-9 59 16  171 254 24 12 536
Iowa-1 75 15  169 370 88 6 723
Iowa-2 84 18  163 394 74 3 736
Iowa-3 93 13  171 369 79 8 733
Iowa-4 92 15  209 337 64 3 720
Kansas-1 57 22  220 248 34 8 589
Kansas-2 47 30  172 221 37 12 519
Kansas-3 55 43  138 156 24 5 421
Kansas-4 59 18  180 208 37 5 507
Kentucky-1 53 58  268 361 53 6 799
Kentucky-2 50 52  227 362 68 10 769
Kentucky-3 69 25  233 297 11 17 652
Kentucky-4 53 21  204 323 41 4 646
Kentucky-5 42 82  300 545 66 16 1051
Kentucky-6 55 31  207 380 59 19 751
Louisiana-1 74 34  281 247 34 4 674
Louisiana-2 42 31  368 405 55 8 909
Louisiana-3 55 63  340 371 60 4 893
Louisiana-4 41 44  262 370 27 5 749
Louisiana-5 48 52  299 413 41 5 858
Louisiana-6 75 27  296 295 32 2 727
Maine-1 56 23  191 295 54 21 640
Maine-2 71 23  251 431 90 33 899
Maryland-1 30 50  169 257 57 3 566
Maryland-2 56 42  170 249 27 5 549
Maryland-3 68 26  145 185 26 7 457
Maryland-4 56 33  139 153 25 7 413
Maryland-5 58 36  109 129 38 5 375
Maryland-6 51 43  163 135 31 4 427
Maryland-7 38 31  261 353 67 11 761
Maryland-8 54 42  101 87 18 7 309
Massachusetts-1 53 34  221 384 83 22 797
Massachusetts-2 50 38  172 283 82 16 641
Massachusetts-3 45 16  219 265 44 11 600
Massachusetts-4 38 46  137 200 36 14 471
Massachusetts-5 28 36  141 182 18 14 419
Massachusetts-6 49 31  169 233 25 11 518
Massachusetts-7 34 35  261 347 28 24 729
Massachusetts-8 41 41  171 269 19 14 555
Massachusetts-9 41 55  187 313 44 18 658
Michigan-1 84 45  220 318 50 34 751
Michigan-2 52 32  189 306 56 15 650
Michigan-3 52 27  183 319 45 15 641
Michigan-4 56 38  199 385 30 27 735
Michigan-5 53 34  203 476 58 10 834
Michigan-6 50 42  194 338 25 18 667
Michigan-7 45 21  148 307 21 15 557
Michigan-8 55 16  143 211 14 12 451
Michigan-9 66 22  209 450 29 6 782
Michigan-10 53 22  167 359 30 12 643
Michigan-11 78 22  152 235 9 3 499
Michigan-12 58 28  217 401 34 16 754
Michigan-13 30 41  237 691 71 10 1080
Michigan-14 40 26  249 537 43 11 906
Minnesota-1 54 26  142 202 44 13 481
Minnesota-2 47 34  94 155 29 4 363
Minnesota-3 40 41  84 122 22 6 315
Minnesota-4 39 37  132 176 26 9 419
Minnesota-5 28 35  165 175 24 19 446
Minnesota-6 46 16  82 151 33 8 336
Minnesota-7 54 22  211 209 45 18 559
Minnesota-8 41 40  133 278 37 24 553
Mississippi-1 55 32  317 370 34 7 815
Mississippi-2 55 25  310 617 56 9 1072
Mississippi-3 62 24  278 414 52 3 833
Mississippi-4 50 38  325 408 47 4 872
Missouri-1 38 43  243 368 44 7 743
Missouri-2 85 36  113 162 13 1 410
Missouri-3 62 28  156 264 18 5 533
Missouri-4 47 39  182 328 34 15 645
Missouri-5 48 48  204 320 35 15 670
Missouri-6 48 35  186 260 24 6 559
Missouri-7 55 50  218 336 34 8 701
Missouri-8 48 68  241 340 30 8 735
Montana, At-Large  72 67  174 374 57 19 763
Nebraska-1 45 27  152 135 30 10 399
Nebraska-2 66 14  120 146 17 5 368
Nebraska-3 43 29  243 149 41 4 509
Nevada-1 61 19  155 312 7 3 557
Nevada-2 42 45  116 294 25 7 529
Nevada-3 43 29  121 155 7 3 358
Nevada-4 44 20  131 187 17 4 403
New Hampshire-1 72 23  153 246 23 14 531
New Hampshire-2 60 28  159 244 34 20 545
New Jersey-1 40 29  252 259 25 3 608
New Jersey-2 38 42  286 236 34 5 641
New Jersey-3 45 23  163 197 20 2 450
New Jersey-4 44 34  167 138 17 4 404
New Jersey-5 45 29  149 71 12 5 311
New Jersey-6 43 29  219 166 13 4 474
New Jersey-7 52 30  111 67 7 5 272
New Jersey-8 50 29  373 244 39 5 740
New Jersey-9 46 25  374 173 28 0 646
New Jersey-10 37 18  424 269 30 7 785
New Jersey-11 47 25  122 54 7 3 258
New Jersey-12 47 32  228 156 16 7 486
New Mexico-1 47 28  141 204 29 11 460
New Mexico-2 44 28  206 284 26 18 606
New Mexico-3 51 26  157 234 31 25 524
New York-1 40 43  151 132 8 4 378
New York-2 48 27  133 122 8 2 340
New York-3 48 36  103 65 7 5 264
New York-4 42 39  170 157 14 4 426
New York-5 32 39  367 230 34 2 704
New York-6 42 46  234 136 27 3 488
New York-7 38 45  634 298 89 6 1110
New York-8 36 49  463 353 29 10 940
New York-9 31 58  466 304 59 9 927
New York-10 48 40  357 149 52 4 650
New York-11 29 35  383 255 36 1 739
New York-12 48 43  287 129 13 3 523
New York-13 44 43  497 339 68 13 1004
New York-14 43 37  429 251 33 2 795
New York-15 29 69  688 403 88 8 1285
New York-16 25 43  325 171 21 7 592
New York-17 45 45  170 87 14 7 368
New York-18 36 43  156 174 27 9 445
New York-19 33 50  216 310 57 20 686
New York-20 39 47  241 338 16 15 696
New York-21 40 65  248 340 41 21 755
New York-22 29 56  243 343 36 15 722
New York-23 36 63  219 253 51 21 643
New York-24 28 65  248 282 27 9 659
New York-25 28 47  200 280 30 8 593
New York-26 25 53  278 394 42 12 804
New York-27 23 68  182 177 43 8 501
North Carolina-1 41 67  266 448 55 16 893
North Carolina-2 53 61  187 294 32 3 630
North Carolina-3 47 73  247 324 62 9 762
North Carolina-4 72 66  196 223 38 13 608
North Carolina-5 37 77  249 369 25 8 765
North Carolina-6 26 70  219 356 40 6 717
North Carolina-7 45 76  283 341 56 2 803
North Carolina-8 39 74  233 302 36 6 690
North Carolina-9 53 71  212 355 34 4 729
North Carolina-10 40 83  266 415 24 17 845
North Carolina-11 26 87  248 316 29 15 721
North Carolina-12 60 69  220 331 19 7 706
North Carolina-13 44 84  257 364 40 5 794
North Dakota, At-Large  67 27  176 193 58 7 528
Ohio-1 56 16  221 270 27 8 598
Ohio-2 56 28  225 299 12 8 628
Ohio-3 57 29  290 395 15 12 798
Ohio-4 49 39  220 250 23 11 592
Ohio-5 53 30  194 238 16 3 534
Ohio-6 42 40  248 348 29 4 711
Ohio-7 45 40  199 203 34 7 528
Ohio-8 40 19  192 252 10 5 518
Ohio-9 39 37  240 407 21 8 752
Ohio-10 51 26  219 250 22 3 571
Ohio-11 39 50  226 413 73 25 826
Ohio-12 59 18  161 196 11 8 453
Ohio-13 59 39  262 287 22 11 680
Ohio-14 49 47  188 188 21 7 500
Ohio-15 58 22  173 233 19 9 514
Ohio-16 61 39  182 177 15 5 479
Oklahoma-1 59 35  217 253 25 6 595
Oklahoma-2 49 38  249 495 32 12 875
Oklahoma-3 35 56  217 342 29 5 684
Oklahoma-4 46 39  223 318 28 9 663
Oklahoma-5 51 32  242 434 17 6 782
Oregon-1 49 45  123 231 50 14 512
Oregon-2 46 60  159 401 75 22 763
Oregon-3 37 54  146 419 57 24 737
Oregon-4 46 58  146 434 74 29 787
Oregon-5 42 44  120 326 70 20 622
Pennsylvania-1 32 36  622 303 69 4 1066
Pennsylvania-2 22 27  566 204 38 3 860
Pennsylvania-3 48 29  256 226 32 6 597
Pennsylvania-4 34 48  176 235 37 5 535
Pennsylvania-5 44 53  219 213 17 6 552
Pennsylvania-6 32 65  138 146 19 5 405
Pennsylvania-7 23 42  119 122 14 1 321
Pennsylvania-8 33 46  141 126 16 1 363
Pennsylvania-9 42 46  241 231 22 5 587
Pennsylvania-10 36 60  212 208 32 4 552
Pennsylvania-11 31 55  201 250 21 5 563
Pennsylvania-12 61 28  198 168 15 2 472
Pennsylvania-13 42 46  271 185 21 3 568
Pennsylvania-14 57 27  264 290 16 11 665
Pennsylvania-15 36 58  160 223 29 7 513
Pennsylvania-16 35 48  221 234 29 2 569
Pennsylvania-17 41 53  242 245 37 5 623
Pennsylvania-18 64 23  175 165 16 3 446
Rhode Island-1 18 31  215 192 15 15 486
Rhode Island-2 28 29  189 185 22 15 468
South Carolina-1 60 62  152 229 48 4 555
South Carolina-2 46 63  201 340 39 6 695
South Carolina-3 24 63  243 383 36 6 755
South Carolina-4 34 79  240 352 23 8 736
South Carolina-5 36 58  206 435 40 4 779
South Carolina-6 30 49  271 538 85 9 982
South Carolina-7 51 82  286 440 56 3 918
South Dakota, At-Large  58 24  262 332 58 15 749
Tennessee-1 36 67  246 416 27 13 805
Tennessee-2 46 58  188 355 36 6 689
Tennessee-3 32 71  256 454 29 12 854
Tennessee-4 47 51  276 416 30 8 828
Tennessee-5 55 41  295 339 26 14 770
Tennessee-6 51 53  241 399 23 7 774
Tennessee-7 45 44  237 296 27 5 654
Tennessee-8 49 38  224 308 26 3 648
Tennessee-9 46 29  276 523 23 7 904
Texas-1 50 42  213 260 16 4 585
Texas-2 45 34  131 177 6 0 393
Texas-3 61 36  137 131 9 1 375
Texas-4 36 48  212 294 31 1 622
Texas-5 37 38  191 295 16 4 581
Texas-6 41 32  161 223 12 0 469
Texas-7 43 38  153 163 16 2 415
Texas-8 55 30  152 262 15 2 516
Texas-9 40 27  161 290 23 1 542
Texas-10 50 39  130 238 19 4 480
Texas-11 38 40  192 331 15 0 616
Texas-12 44 34  175 258 8 2 521
Texas-13 28 48  218 303 21 2 620
Texas-14 39 32  196 320 23 2 612
Texas-15 26 29  262 403 36 4 760
Texas-16 50 25  213 253 43 1 585
Texas-17 34 23  158 334 12 2 563
Texas-18 30 29  169 401 20 4 653
Texas-19 31 46  188 301 19 1 586
Texas-20 24 29  152 331 21 7 564
Texas-21 29 39  118 228 9 4 427
Texas-22 47 34  125 159 11 0 376
Texas-23 36 24  188 321 25 1 595
Texas-24 48 39  135 198 6 1 427
Texas-25 31 37  123 261 12 2 466
Texas-26 46 34  125 125 12 2 344
Texas-27 29 33  174 417 34 2 689
Texas-28 30 29  247 364 29 1 700
Texas-29 40 34  186 437 27 1 725
Texas-30 46 33  165 312 20 2 578
Texas-31 29 36  143 293 15 1 517
Texas-32 55 46  143 187 9 1 441
Texas-33 51 26  192 368 9 1 647
Texas-34 21 30  270 392 58 4 775
Texas-35 23 31  155 450 22 12 693
Texas-36 46 32  211 304 28 1 622
Utah-1 52 20  78 165 33 9 357
Utah-2 46 34  121 171 30 10 412
Utah-3 50 28  88 119 19 5 309
Utah-4 47 26  112 184 20 1 390
Vermont, At-Large  34 52  195 345 43 50 719
Virginia-1 47 52  146 275 30 15 565
Virginia-2 61 49  162 261 35 5 573
Virginia-3 59 57  211 398 32 1 758
Virginia-4 33 47  214 407 44 17 762
Virginia-5 36 54  206 391 17 13 717
Virginia-6 55 54  221 340 17 21 708
Virginia-7 52 62  174 220 22 6 536
Virginia-8 60 37  141 119 5 14 376
Virginia-9 43 77  239 473 21 23 876
Virginia-10 61 35  90 113 6 5 310
Virginia-11 61 38  94 86 4 6 289
Washington-1 33 36  83 176 27 10 365
Washington-2 54 39  113 248 51 13 518
Washington-3 35 39  92 308 42 8 524
Washington-4 35 36  143 342 52 10 618
Washington-5 35 38  117 265 46 18 519
Washington-6 40 40  89 303 41 17 530
Washington-7 45 45  120 210 25 14 459
Washington-8 33 38  80 185 31 7 374
Washington-9 57 39  156 251 33 6 542
Washington-10 36 38  102 275 44 11 506
West Virginia-1 53 32  215 341 17 13 671
West Virginia-2 43 36  230 339 31 10 689
West Virginia-3 36 43  262 432 23 15 811
Wisconsin-1 72 21  129 227 31 4 484
Wisconsin-2 61 17  132 211 40 19 480
Wisconsin-3 61 21  136 248 46 15 527
Wisconsin-4 46 18  188 415 18 11 696
Wisconsin-5 91 21  98 168 25 7 410
Wisconsin-6 65 17  130 189 30 8 439
Wisconsin-7 57 36  172 296 55 20 636
Wisconsin-8 63 17  155 242 35 12 524
Wyoming, At-Large  46 29  82 185 25 11 378
Guam, At-Large  14 6  120 89 21 1 251
Virgin Islands, At-Large  13 4  35 25 12 0 89
United States  19,806  17,557  84,497  118,787  13,240  3,653 257,540
Source: Food and Nutrition Services, USDA, December 13, 2017

End Notes

[1] Food and Nutrition Service, “SNAP Retailer Management 2014 Annual Report,” U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2014, https://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/snap/2014-SNAP-Retailer-Management-Annual-Report.pdf; Economic Research Service, “Food Expenditures, Food at home: Total expenditures,” U.S. Department of Agriculture, updated January 26, 2016, https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-expenditures/food-expenditures/#Food Expenditures. The “food at home” expenditure total (Table 2) includes food purchased at food and other stores, food purchased for home delivery and mail order, and food purchased from farmers, manufacturers, and wholesalers. It does not include food produced at home or donated foods.

[2] Food and Nutrition Service, “2017 Retailer Management Year End Summary,” U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2017, https://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/snap/2017-SNAP-Retailer-Management-Year-End-Summary.pdf.

[3] CBPP calculation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service SNAP Retailer data (see https://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/retailerlocator) as of December 13, 2017 and the U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population as of July 1, 2017.

[4] Smaller stores include all authorized SNAP retailers other than superstores, supermarkets, wholesalers, and large and medium grocery stores.

[5] Patricia M. Anderson and Kristin F. Butcher, “The Relationships Among SNAP Benefits, Grocery Spending, Diet Quality, and the Adequacy of Low-Income Families’ Resources,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, June 14, 2016, https://www.cbpp.org/research/the-relationships-among-snap-benefits-grocery-spending-diet-quality-and-the-adequacy-of-low.

[6] Alan S. Blinder and Mark Zandi, “The Financial Crisis: Lessons for the Next One,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, October 15, 2015, https://www.cbpp.org/research/economy/the-financial-crisis-lessons-for-the-next-one.

[7] For more information, see https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/snap/2017-SNAP-Retailer-Management-Year-End-Summary.pdf.

[8] Testimony of Jennifer Hatcher, Food Marketing Institute, hearing on “The Next Farm Bill, The Future of SNAP,” before the House Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Nutrition, March 28, 2017.