Coming Reductions in Discretionary Funding Will Be Larger For Non-Defense Programs than Defense Programs
 The Budget Control Act set dollar limits on the annual level of appropriations for discretionary (or non-entitlement) programs for each year through 2021, and also required substantial levels of reductions from those caps for defense and non-defense discretionary programs if the Joint Committee did not succeed.
 “McKeon Introduces Legislation To Address Defense Cuts,” http://mckeon.house.gov/this_in_detail.aspx?NewsID=2010. Senators McCain, Kyl, Graham, Ayotte, and Rubio have also announced an effort to prevent the cuts to defense spending resulting from the failure of the supercommittee from taking place. See “Senators Announce Effort to Replace Defense Sequester with Other Federal Savings,” http://mccain.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressOffice.PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=3d9f6f83-c952-153a-f409-1742bc73a72b&Region_id=&Issue_id=.
 Historical data before 1962 are not disaggregated into categories such as “non-defense discretionary.” But budget totals very strongly suggest that 1930 or possibly 1931 was the year in which programs that would be considered non-defense discretionary fell below 2.4 percent of GDP.
 The maximum amount of adjustments for program integrity funding, averaging $1.5 billion per year, is specified in the Budget Control Act and we use that figure. Larger amounts of disaster funding and unlimited amounts of “emergency” funding are allowed under the BCA. While it is not obvious how best to account for these possibilities, we assume that the amount of such funding will equal the CBO baseline amount of emergency funding for the FEMA disaster relief fund, averaging $2.8 billion per year from 2012 through 2021.
 Some education and job training programs are funded for a school year (July through June) rather than for a fiscal year (October through September). For technical reasons, the amount of funding that is attributed to those programs in a fiscal year sometimes does not reflect the actual size of the program for the coming school year. For these programs, we adopt the approach used by the Department of Education and show funding for the coming school year. For the assisted housing programs that initially operated on long-term contracts, we use outlays rather than budget authority in a fiscal year to better represent the actual cost of the programs in that year. A more detailed explanation of these two types of adjustments is given in the Appendix to Kogan, The Omnibus Appropriations Act: Are Appropriations for Domestic Programs Out of Control? February 1, 2004, at https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/12-16-03bud.pdf.