Research Note: 1990s Cash Assistance Policy Changes Associated With Negative Social Behaviors for Adolescents, Particularly Boys
 The researchers use the phrase “welfare reform” throughout their report to describe changes in cash assistance through AFDC waivers and TANF implementation, such as harsh work requirement penalties and federal time limits.
 The researchers classified an AFDC waiver as significant if it substantially altered the nature of the time limits, work requirements, earning disregards, sanctions, and/or family caps in the state AFDC program.
 Data limitations restrict researchers’ ability to study the effects of AFDC waivers and TANF implementation on the behaviors in this study. Accordingly, the study lacks the rigor of randomization and focuses instead on the timing of states’ AFDC waivers and TANF implementation. Consistent with several previous studies of the AFDC and TANF programs, the authors used the year-by-year variation in when AFDC waivers and the TANF program took effect in each state over a span of years as a rough indicator of policies such as work requirements and time limits on receiving cash assistance. Rebecca M. Blank, “Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States,” NBER Working Paper No. 8983, June 2002, https://www.nber.org/papers/w8983.
 The Monitoring the Future survey includes the following substances: marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes, and other illicit drugs. The survey asked respondents how frequently they had used the substance in the past 30 days.