Uninsured Rate Fell or Held Steady in Almost Every State Last Year, New Census Data Show

PDF of this report (7pp.)

By Matt Broaddus and Edwin Park

September 21, 2012

The share of residents without health coverage fell in 20 states last year, Census data released yesterday show, while rising in just one.  This improvement largely reflect increased private coverage among young adults — helped by a health reform provision allowing them to stay on their parents’ insurance plans until age 26 — and greater enrollment in public programs such as Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP). 

These findings are consistent with last week’s Census data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), which indicated that the number of uninsured Americans fell by 1.3 million in 2011 and the share of Americans without health insurance fell from 16.3 percent to 15.7 percent, the largest single-year drop since 1999.[1]   Yesterday’s data come from a different Census Bureau survey — the American Community Survey (ACS) — that allow for more detailed analysis of health insurance coverage changes at the state level than the CPS data, which have inadequate sample sizes in some states. 

The ACS data show that a substantial number of states made progress in reducing the number of people without health insurance coverage.

  • In 18 states, the number of residents without health insurance coverage fell.  As noted, the percentage of the population without health insurance coverage fell in 20 states.
  • In 34 states, the percentage of 18- to 24-year-olds with private coverage increased; the number of residents in this age group with private coverage increased in 35 states.
  • In 34 states, the number of residents enrolled in Medicaid increased.

For states that did not see a reduction in the uninsured rate, it appears that the gains in private coverage among young adults and/or the increases in public program enrollment were only able to offset — rather than more than offset — the continued overall erosion of employer-sponsored insurance.  In Missouri, the only state whose uninsured rate rose in 2011, the gain in private coverage among young adults was not enough to offset the decline in private coverage among adults aged 25 to 64 while Medicaid and CHIP enrollment remained steady.

Uninsured Rate Fell in 20 States, Due to Health Reform and Public Programs

The ACS data are consistent with the earlier Census data from the CPS.  (Under the ACS data, the number of uninsured Americans decreased by roughly 830,000 and the percentage without health insurance coverage fell from 15.5 percent in 2010 to 15.1 percent in 2011.)  The ACS data also show that the reduction in 2011 in the share of people without insurance coverage occurred across a diverse set of states.  The uninsured rate declined significantly in 20 states and remained flat in 30 states.  (Tables 1 and 2 show the changes in the percentage and number, respectively, of uninsured individuals and children under 18 in each state.)

The state-level ACS data confirm that a key contributor to these coverage gains was a substantial rise in health coverage among young adults, which largely reflected a health reform provision enabling adult children to get coverage through their parents’ health insurance plans until their 26th birthday.  This provision marked a significant shift from prior rules, under which young adults typically were no longer eligible for their parents’ health plans once they turned 19 or graduated from college. 

The young adult provision took effect in September 2010, so 2011 represented the first full year that it affected health insurance coverage rates.  In 34 states, the rate of private coverage among young adults aged 18 to 24 increased; at the same time, the rate of private coverage among adults aged 25 to 64 fell in most states. 

In 21 states, the increase in private coverage among young adults entirely offset the continuing erosion in private coverage among other non-elderly adults.   Table 3 shows the change between 2010 and 2011 in private coverage rates in each state for young adults, adults aged 25 to 64, and all non-elderly adults (aged 18 to 64).

The ACS data also show that enrollment increases in public programs, particularly Medicaid and CHIP, contributed to the coverage gains across the states.  Federal policies, including a temporary increase in Medicaid funding for states through June 2011 (which policymakers included in the 2009 Recovery Act and later extended) and health reform’s requirement that states maintain their Medicaid and CHIP eligibility levels and enrollment procedures, likely enabled these programs to cover more low-income people during the slow economic recovery.  Medicaid and CHIP enrollment tends to continue rising for a few years after the end of a recession.  Table 4 shows the change in the Medicaid coverage rate in each state for all individuals and children under 18. 

States will have an opportunity to make substantially greater progress in covering uninsured low-income adults starting in 2014, when the health reform provisions enabling them to extend Medicaid to nearly all individuals up to 133 percent of the poverty line take effect.  The recent Supreme Court decision gives states the choice of whether or not to institute that expansion.   Some 30 million people who would otherwise be uninsured will gain coverage under health reform by 2022, the Congressional Budget Office estimates, with 11 million people gaining Medicaid coverage.  The gains in insurance coverage will be even greater if all or nearly all states adopt the Medicaid expansion.

Table 1
Percentage of People Without Insurance Declined in Many States in 2011
  ALL INDIVIDUALS   CHILDREN UNDER 18  
STATE 2010 2011 % Point Change   2010 2011 % Point Change  
NATION 15.5% 15.1% -0.4% * 8.0% 7.5% -0.5% *
Alabama 14.6% 14.3% -0.3%   5.9% 5.3% -0.6%  
Alaska 19.9% 20.1% 0.2%   12.2% 11.8% -0.4%  
Arizona 16.9% 17.2% 0.3%   12.8% 12.9% 0.1%  
Arkansas 17.5% 17.1% -0.4%   6.6% 5.6% -1.0% *
California 18.5% 18.1% -0.4% * 9.0% 8.0% -1.0% *
Colorado 15.9% 15.1% -0.8% * 10.1% 9.4% -0.7%  
Connecticut 9.1% 8.8% -0.3%   3.0% 2.9% -0.1%  
Delaware 9.7% 9.4% -0.3%   5.3% 4.6% -0.7%  
DC 7.6% 6.9% -0.7%   2.3% 3.9% 1.6%  
Florida 21.3% 20.9% -0.4% * 12.7% 11.9% -0.8% *
Georgia 19.7% 19.6% -0.1%   9.8% 9.5% -0.3%  
Hawaii 7.9% 7.1% -0.8% * 3.7% 3.6% -0.1%  
Idaho 17.7% 16.5% -1.2% * 10.5% 9.1% -1.4%  
Illinois 13.8% 13.1% -0.7% * 4.5% 3.7% -0.8% *
Indiana 14.8% 14.5% -0.3%   8.9% 8.1% -0.8% *
Iowa 9.3% 8.9% -0.4%   4.0% 4.4% 0.4%  
Kansas 13.9% 12.6% -1.3% * 8.2% 6.4% -1.8% *
Kentucky 15.3% 14.4% -0.9% * 6.0% 6.1% 0.1%  
Louisiana 17.8% 17.5% -0.3%   5.5% 5.8% 0.3%  
Maine 10.1% 10.7% 0.6%   4.0% 5.2% 1.2% *
Maryland 11.3% 10.4% -0.9% * 4.8% 4.6% -0.2%  
Massachusetts 4.4% 4.3% -0.1%   1.5% 1.7% 0.2%  
Michigan 12.4% 11.8% -0.6% * 4.1% 4.1% 0.0%  
Minnesota 9.1% 8.8% -0.3%   6.6% 6.3% -0.3%  
Mississippi 18.2% 17.7% -0.5%   8.4% 8.1% -0.3%  
Missouri 13.2% 13.7% 0.5% * 6.2% 6.7% 0.5%  
Montana 17.3% 17.8% 0.5%   12.4% 11.5% -0.9%  
Nebraska 11.5% 11.4% -0.1%   5.6% 5.9% 0.3%  
Nevada 22.6% 21.9% -0.7%   17.4% 16.2% -1.2%  
New Hampshire 11.1% 10.5% -0.6%   4.8% 3.7% -1.1%  
New Jersey 13.2% 13.1% -0.1%   6.0% 5.2% -0.8% *
New Mexico 19.6% 19.8% 0.2%   10.2% 9.2% -1.0%  
New York 11.9% 11.4% -0.5% * 4.8% 4.2% -0.6% *
North Carolina 16.8% 16.3% -0.5% * 7.7% 7.6% -0.1%  
North Dakota 9.8% 9.8% 0.0%   6.5% 6.4% -0.1%  
Ohio 12.3% 11.9% -0.4% * 6.0% 5.8% -0.2%  
Oklahoma 18.9% 18.7% -0.2%   10.0% 10.6% 0.6%  
Oregon 17.1% 15.7% -1.4% * 8.8% 7.3% -1.5% *
Pennsylvania 10.2% 10.1% -0.1%   5.2% 5.4% 0.2%  
Rhode Island 12.2% 10.8% -1.4% * 5.3% 4.0% -1.3%  
South Carolina 17.5% 16.7% -0.8% * 9.4% 8.4% -1.0% *
South Dakota 12.4% 11.9% -0.5%   8.3% 6.0% -2.3% *
Tennessee 14.4% 14.6% 0.2%   5.3% 5.7% 0.4%  
Texas 23.7% 23.0% -0.7% * 14.5% 13.2% -1.3% *
Utah 15.3% 15.3% 0.0%   10.9% 11.1% 0.2%  
Vermont 8.0% 6.6% -1.4% * 2.0% 2.4% 0.4%  
Virginia 13.1% 12.5% -0.6% * 6.6% 5.9% -0.7%  
Washington 14.2% 14.2% 0.0%   6.4% 6.2% -0.2%  
West Virginia 14.6% 14.9% 0.3%   4.5% 4.4% -0.1%  
Wisconsin 9.4% 9.0% -0.4% * 5.0% 4.4% -0.6% *
Wyoming 14.9% 15.4% 0.5%   7.9% 8.6% 0.7%  
Source:  CBPP analysis of Census Bureau data from the American Community Survey. “*” indicates the change is statistically significant at 90 percent confidence.
Table 2
Number of Uninsured People Declined in Many States in 2011
  ALL INDIVIDUALS   CHILDREN UNDER 18  
STATE 2010 2011 Change   2010 2011 Change  
NATION 47,208,222 46,375,539 -832,683 * 5,918,388 5,527,657 -390,731 *
Alabama 686,592 673,964 -12,628   66,958 59,061 -7,897  
Alaska 136,840 140,660 3,820   22,843 22,109 -734  
Arizona 1,065,132 1,095,010 29,878   207,967 208,419 452  
Arkansas 500,613 492,310 -8,303   46,495 39,950 -6,545  
California 6,824,913 6,725,604 -99,309 * 832,752 744,797 -87,955 *
Colorado 789,109 759,619 -29,490 * 124,128 115,726 -8,402  
Connecticut 320,133 308,945 -11,188   24,144 23,377 -767  
Delaware 85,801 83,995 -1,806   11,012 9,379 -1,633  
DC 45,164 42,007 -3,157   2,309 4,133 1,824  
Florida 3,941,060 3,911,381 -29,679   506,934 475,112 -31,822 *
Georgia 1,875,566 1,882,758 7,192   244,004 236,568 -7,436  
Hawaii 103,764 94,399 -9,365 * 11,116 10,980 -136  
Idaho 275,404 259,094 -16,310 * 45,004 38,968 -6,036  
Illinois 1,745,556 1,659,275 -86,281 * 140,105 113,311 -26,794 *
Indiana 947,920 930,829 -17,091   142,672 128,725 -13,947 *
Iowa 279,811 269,490 -10,321   29,046 31,741 2,695  
Kansas 389,446 354,630 -34,816 * 59,783 46,345 -13,438 *
Kentucky 647,041 618,458 -28,583 * 61,180 62,444 1,264  
Louisiana 790,987 784,015 -6,972   61,718 64,635 2,917  
Maine 133,065 140,165 7,100   10,935 14,165 3,230 *
Maryland 640,861 598,444 -42,417 * 64,298 61,486 -2,812  
Massachusetts 285,717 276,940 -8,777   21,682 24,099 2,417  
Michigan 1,207,384 1,149,911 -57,473 * 95,103 93,810 -1,293  
Minnesota 476,259 467,443 -8,816   84,165 79,824 -4,341  
Mississippi 528,095 516,413 -11,682   63,502 60,983 -2,519  
Missouri 773,894 807,414 33,520 * 88,145 94,934 6,789  
Montana 168,981 179,575 10,594 * 27,558 25,562 -1,996  
Nebraska 207,653 207,094 -559   25,734 26,892 1,158  
Nevada 603,700 588,794 -14,906   115,339 107,404 -7,935  
New Hampshire 145,013 136,922 -8,091   13,679 10,192 -3,487  
New Jersey 1,151,158 1,139,104 -12,054   123,456 105,165 -18,291 *
New Mexico 398,558 406,184 7,626   52,891 47,469 -5,422  
New York 2,277,382 2,195,349 -82,033 * 208,461 180,834 -27,627 *
North Carolina 1,569,837 1,544,907 -24,930   176,700 174,572 -2,128  
North Dakota 64,535 65,448 913   9,703 9,615 -88  
Ohio 1,398,943 1,354,431 -44,512 * 161,954 157,202 -4,752  
Oklahoma 693,551 693,545 -6   92,521 99,384 6,863  
Oregon 651,504 602,377 -49,127 * 75,751 62,887 -12,864 *
Pennsylvania 1,271,180 1,264,548 -6,632   144,184 149,227 5,043  
Rhode Island 126,184 111,834 -14,350 * 12,490 8,672 -3,818 *
South Carolina 795,275 766,304 -28,971 * 101,857 91,191 -10,666 *
South Dakota 98,886 95,908 -2,978   16,695 12,039 -4,656 *
Tennessee 898,561 922,650 24,089   79,244 84,927 5,683  
Texas 5,875,474 5,789,846 -85,628 * 996,493 916,522 -79,971 *
Utah 421,924 426,064 4,140   94,691 97,242 2,551  
Vermont 49,880 41,209 -8,671 * 2,627 3,019 392  
Virginia 1,020,130 982,861 -37,269 * 121,380 108,483 -12,897 *
Washington 945,589 952,630 7,041   101,614 97,208 -4,406  
West Virginia 266,161 272,287 6,126   17,518 16,994 -524  
Wisconsin 529,200 506,674 -22,526 * 67,110 58,236 -8,874 *
Wyoming 82,836 85,831 2,995   10,768 11,638 870  
Source: CBPP analysis of Census Bureau data from the American Community Survey. “*” indicates the change is statistically significant at 90 percent confidence.
Table 3
In Most States. Private Coverage Rates Increased Only Among Young Adults
  18 to 24 Year Olds   25 to 64 Year Olds   18 to 64 Year Olds  
STATE 2010 2011 % Point Change   2010 2011 % Point Change   2010 2011 % Point Change  
NATION 58.0% 61.6% 3.6% * 69.9% 69.2% -0.8% * 68.0% 68.0% -0.1%  
Alabama 59.7% 63.9% 4.1% * 70.0% 69.0% -1.0% * 68.3% 68.2% -0.2%  
Alaska 52.0% 54.3% 2.3%   68.9% 67.3% -1.6%   66.4% 65.3% -1.1%  
Arizona 48.9% 51.2% 2.3%   65.0% 63.4% -1.6% * 62.4% 61.4% -1.0% *
Arkansas 50.9% 54.9% 3.9% * 64.7% 63.8% -0.9%   62.5% 62.4% -0.1%  
California 52.5% 55.4% 3.0% * 65.6% 64.8% -0.8% * 63.4% 63.3% -0.1%  
Colorado 62.2% 65.8% 3.5% * 73.4% 73.1% -0.3%   71.7% 72.0% 0.3%  
Connecticut 69.1% 70.2% 1.1%   77.1% 76.2% -0.9% * 76.0% 75.4% -0.6%  
Delaware 65.3% 69.9% 4.6%   74.6% 73.6% -1.0%   73.0% 73.0% -0.1%  
DC 72.3% 73.3% 1.0%   73.7% 74.3% 0.5%   73.4% 74.1% 0.6%  
Florida 50.5% 52.9% 2.5% * 62.3% 61.6% -0.7% * 60.5% 60.3% -0.2%  
Georgia 53.1% 57.2% 4.1% * 67.4% 65.9% -1.5% * 65.1% 64.5% -0.6% *
Hawaii 69.1% 72.7% 3.6%   81.4% 80.4% -1.0%   79.7% 79.4% -0.3%  
Idaho 59.9% 63.6% 3.7%   70.2% 69.8% -0.4%   68.5% 68.8% 0.3%  
Illinois 61.1% 64.7% 3.5% * 71.6% 71.1% -0.5% * 70.0% 70.1% 0.1%  
Indiana 60.9% 66.1% 5.2% * 72.0% 71.3% -0.7% * 70.2% 70.5% 0.2%  
Iowa 68.1% 75.1% 7.0% * 79.2% 79.0% -0.2%   77.4% 78.4% 1.0% *
Kansas 67.1% 72.5% 5.5% * 76.2% 76.4% 0.2%   74.7% 75.8% 1.1% *
Kentucky 55.7% 61.4% 5.7% * 67.2% 67.8% 0.5%   65.5% 66.8% 1.3% *
Louisiana 51.0% 55.2% 4.2% * 64.3% 63.7% -0.6%   62.1% 62.3% 0.2%  
Maine 60.9% 63.2% 2.3%   69.2% 67.9% -1.2% * 68.0% 67.3% -0.7%  
Maryland 65.3% 71.8% 6.6% * 78.3% 77.4% -0.9% * 76.3% 76.6% 0.2%  
Massachusetts 74.5% 75.2% 0.7%   79.1% 78.1% -0.9% * 78.3% 77.7% -0.7% *
Michigan 57.5% 62.8% 5.3% * 71.1% 70.5% -0.6% * 69.0% 69.3% 0.3%  
Minnesota 67.6% 70.3% 2.7% * 79.4% 78.4% -0.9% * 77.6% 77.2% -0.4%  
Mississippi 48.8% 54.2% 5.4% * 63.2% 62.4% -0.9%   60.8% 61.0% 0.2%  
Missouri 63.5% 66.0% 2.5% * 72.9% 72.0% -0.9% * 71.4% 71.1% -0.4%  
Montana 63.9% 62.7% -1.1%   70.2% 67.6% -2.6% * 69.2% 66.8% -2.4% *
Nebraska 68.3% 73.6% 5.3% * 78.6% 77.7% -0.8% * 76.9% 77.1% 0.2%  
Nevada 51.0% 56.0% 5.0% * 67.1% 66.2% -0.9%   64.8% 64.7% 0.0%  
New Hampshire 71.5% 77.7% 6.2% * 78.9% 78.4% -0.5%   77.8% 78.3% 0.4%  
New Jersey 63.4% 67.5% 4.2% * 74.9% 74.0% -0.9% * 73.4% 73.1% -0.2%  
New Mexico 47.9% 45.4% -2.5%   60.8% 59.8% -1.0%   58.7% 57.4% -1.3% *
New York 57.8% 62.4% 4.5% * 69.9% 68.7% -1.2% * 67.9% 67.7% -0.3%  
North Carolina 56.5% 60.6% 4.0% * 68.3% 67.7% -0.6% * 66.5% 66.6% 0.1%  
North Dakota 76.5% 75.5% -1.1%   82.2% 81.8% -0.4%   81.1% 80.6% -0.5%  
Ohio 61.4% 66.0% 4.6% * 73.0% 72.3% -0.7% * 71.3% 71.3% 0.1%  
Oklahoma 53.6% 56.5% 2.9%   66.5% 66.0% -0.5%   64.4% 64.5% 0.0%  
Oregon 56.7% 61.5% 4.8% * 68.9% 68.4% -0.5%   67.1% 67.4% 0.3%  
Pennsylvania 65.8% 69.7% 3.9% * 76.8% 75.6% -1.2% * 75.1% 74.7% -0.4% *
Rhode Island 66.6% 69.5% 2.9%   73.4% 74.9% 1.5% * 72.2% 73.9% 1.7% *
South Carolina 54.7% 60.0% 5.3% * 66.9% 66.3% -0.6%   64.9% 65.3% 0.4%  
South Dakota 69.0% 68.7% -0.3%   77.7% 76.9% -0.8%   76.2% 75.5% -0.7%  
Tennessee 55.5% 59.7% 4.2% * 68.4% 67.2% -1.2% * 66.4% 66.1% -0.3%  
Texas 49.0% 52.5% 3.4% * 63.0% 62.7% -0.4% * 60.7% 61.0% 0.2%  
Utah 70.0% 73.5% 3.5% * 74.7% 74.2% -0.5%   73.8% 74.1% 0.3%  
Vermont 65.4% 72.6% 7.2% * 71.0% 72.5% 1.5% * 70.1% 72.5% 2.4% *
Virginia 68.3% 70.3% 2.0% * 77.3% 77.3% 0.0%   76.0% 76.2% 0.3%  
Washington 59.7% 63.6% 3.9% * 73.5% 72.8% -0.7% * 71.5% 71.4% 0.0%  
West Virginia 57.4% 60.5% 3.1%   65.7% 63.1% -2.6% * 64.5% 62.8% -1.7% *
Wisconsin 65.6% 68.9% 3.3% * 76.5% 75.7% -0.8% * 74.8% 74.6% -0.2%  
Wyoming 63.1% 68.9% 5.8%   75.0% 73.0% -2.1% * 73.2% 72.3% -0.8%  
Source: CBPP analysis of Census Bureau data from the American Community Survey. “*” indicates the change is statistically significant at 90 percent confidence.
Table 4
Medicaid/CHIP Coverage Rate Increased in Most States in 2011
  ALL INDIVIDUALS   CHILDREN UNDER 18  
STATE 2010 2011 % Point Change   2010 2011 % Point Change  
NATION 17.0% 17.6% 0.6% * 35.6% 36.9% 1.3% *
Alabama 18.2% 18.3% 0.1%   40.5% 41.4% 0.9%  
Alaska 15.4% 16.5% 1.1% * 30.7% 34.9% 4.1% *
Arizona 20.4% 20.6% 0.3%   36.4% 37.4% 1.0%  
Arkansas 20.5% 21.3% 0.8% * 49.8% 51.0% 1.2%  
California 19.2% 19.7% 0.5% * 38.2% 39.5% 1.3% *
Colorado 12.9% 13.8% 0.9% * 27.1% 28.8% 1.7% *
Connecticut 15.1% 16.3% 1.2% * 28.9% 30.2% 1.3%  
Delaware 18.6% 19.3% 0.7%   35.2% 37.8% 2.6%  
DC 25.4% 25.5% 0.1%   52.8% 49.9% -3.0%  
Florida 15.5% 16.5% 1.0% * 36.5% 38.9% 2.4% *
Georgia 16.1% 16.4% 0.4% * 37.1% 37.6% 0.5%  
Hawaii 15.6% 16.3% 0.7%   31.2% 30.4% -0.8%  
Idaho 13.7% 15.1% 1.4% * 30.4% 33.0% 2.6% *
Illinois 17.2% 18.1% 0.9% * 38.4% 40.7% 2.3% *
Indiana 15.0% 15.6% 0.6% * 33.4% 34.6% 1.2% *
Iowa 15.5% 15.6% 0.1%   32.0% 32.5% 0.4%  
Kansas 12.1% 13.0% 0.9% * 26.3% 29.5% 3.2% *
Kentucky 18.5% 18.9% 0.4%   38.8% 40.8% 2.0% *
Louisiana 21.8% 21.7% -0.2%   50.2% 48.8% -1.3%  
Maine 22.9% 23.0% 0.1%   40.9% 40.0% -0.8%  
Maryland 14.1% 14.6% 0.5% * 29.4% 30.2% 0.8%  
Massachusetts 20.1% 21.0% 0.9% * 31.0% 31.8% 0.8%  
Michigan 19.4% 20.0% 0.6% * 39.0% 39.7% 0.7%  
Minnesota 14.2% 14.6% 0.4% * 24.5% 25.5% 1.1% *
Mississippi 23.2% 23.3% 0.1%   50.6% 49.2% -1.3%  
Missouri 15.0% 14.7% -0.3%   33.0% 32.9% -0.1%  
Montana 12.7% 13.2% 0.5%   30.8% 32.9% 2.1%  
Nebraska 13.3% 13.2% -0.1%   30.1% 29.7% -0.5%  
Nevada 11.0% 11.8% 0.8% * 23.8% 24.9% 1.1%  
New Hampshire 10.6% 11.2% 0.7% * 26.1% 27.6% 1.5%  
New Jersey 13.2% 13.8% 0.6% * 26.1% 27.9% 1.8% *
New Mexico 22.8% 24.1% 1.3% * 49.0% 53.2% 4.2% *
New York 21.2% 22.3% 1.1% * 36.9% 39.2% 2.4% *
North Carolina 16.8% 17.5% 0.6% * 38.7% 39.9% 1.2% *
North Dakota 9.3% 10.4% 1.1% * 19.5% 23.0% 3.5% *
Ohio 16.3% 16.8% 0.5% * 34.3% 35.3% 1.0% *
Oklahoma 16.8% 17.0% 0.2%   40.8% 40.9% 0.0%  
Oregon 14.5% 16.8% 2.3% * 32.2% 37.9% 5.7% *
Pennsylvania 16.7% 17.0% 0.3% * 34.6% 34.7% 0.2%  
Rhode Island 16.6% 17.5% 0.8%   31.7% 34.3% 2.6%  
South Carolina 17.2% 17.6% 0.4%   38.3% 39.8% 1.5% *
South Dakota 13.4% 13.8% 0.4%   29.8% 31.9% 2.1%  
Tennessee 18.9% 19.2% 0.3%   38.5% 40.3% 1.8% *
Texas 16.8% 17.3% 0.4% * 38.3% 39.7% 1.4% *
Utah 11.5% 11.4% -0.1%   20.3% 20.3% 0.0%  
Vermont 24.4% 24.4% 0.1%   47.8% 46.0% -1.8%  
Virginia 10.3% 10.9% 0.5% * 23.8% 25.0% 1.2% *
Washington 16.0% 16.0% 0.0%   35.5% 36.2% 0.7%  
West Virginia 18.9% 19.7% 0.8% * 42.5% 43.9% 1.5%  
Wisconsin 17.4% 18.3% 0.9% * 32.4% 34.6% 2.2% *
Wyoming 12.8% 11.5% -1.3% * 32.0% 27.7% -4.3% *
Source: CBPP analysis of Census Bureau data from the American Community Survey. “*” indicates the change is statistically significant at 90 percent confidence. 

End notes:

[1] Matt Broaddus and Edwin Park, “Number of Uninsured Fell in 2011, Largely Due to Health Reform and Public Programs,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, September 13, 2012.

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