Policy Basics: Non-Defense Discretionary Programs
February 18, 2016
Non-defense discretionary (NDD) programs comprise domestic and international programs outside of national defense that Congress funds on an annual basis. In 2015, NDD spending totaled $585 billion, or 16 percent of federal spending.
NDD includes a wide variety of priorities such as education, scientific research, infrastructure, national parks and forests, environmental protection, some low-income assistance, and public health, as well as many basic government operations including law enforcement, courts, and tax collection. It also includes many programs related to national security, including foreign aid, homeland security, and services for veterans.
These programs are called “discretionary” because Congress must set funding levels for them each year through the appropriations process. In contrast, for “entitlement” or “mandatory” programs such as Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid, spending is determined by eligibility, benefits, and payment formulas set in authorizing law. Hence, spending on these programs occurs without annual action by Congress.
Traditionally, funding for defense and non-defense discretionary programs is provided each year through 12 appropriations bills covering various parts of the government. In recent years, individual bills have been more often combined into large “omnibus” packages before enactment. When final action on appropriations is delayed beyond the start of the fiscal year, Congress passes “continuing resolutions,” which authorize agencies to continue operating — generally at the prior year’s funding level — until final legislation is completed.
The 2011 Budget Control Act established caps that limit overall appropriations for most defense and non-defense discretionary programs in each year through 2021. Some appropriations are exempt from the caps, including those for overseas military and anti-terrorism operations, disaster relief, other emergencies, and certain activities to fight fraud and abuse. In addition, spending from the highway and other transportation trust funds are counted as NDD spending but are not subject to the Budget Control Act caps.
NDD Spending Supports Key Public Services
Of total NDD spending in 2015, 32 percent went to grants to states and localities, such as for K-12 education and highway projects, while 21 percent went to low-income programs, such as Head Start and rental assistance. These categories are not mutually exclusive; a sizable share of grants to states and localities support low-income programs.
In the following discussion, we break NDD programs into seven categories, as the chart below shows. (We assign each program to a single category to avoid double-counting.)
The categories are:
1. Health Care and Health Research
Health care and health research constituted 21 percent ($122 billion) of NDD spending in 2015. These programs support health research and the provision of health care services but do not include Medicare and Medicaid, which are mandatory programs.
Nearly half of NDD health spending provides hospital and medical care for veterans. Another 25 percent finances research ranging from cancer treatments to vaccine development, primarily through the National Institutes of Health. The rest funds other health programs such as the Indian Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Food and Drug Administration. It also funds Medicare administrative costs.
2. Transportation and Economic Development
Transportation and economic development programs constituted 18 percent ($107 billion) of NDD spending in 2015.
Most of this spending goes to air, ground, and water transportation programs such as the National Highway System, air traffic control and aviation safety, the Coast Guard, and transportation security. The rest goes to a variety of community development activities; disaster insurance, prevention, and relief; and agriculture programs.
3. Education and Training
Education and training programs constituted 15 percent ($90 billion) of NDD spending in 2015.
The bulk of the spending in this category goes to K-12 education (44 percent), primarily to aid school districts in educating students with disabilities and low-income students; and higher education programs (29 percent), including Pell Grants, which help more than 8 million students from low- and moderate-income households afford college.
About one-fifth of the spending in this category supports programs that provide early education, employment, and other services for children and families, seniors, and people with disabilities. This includes Head Start (an early childhood education program that helps about 1 million disadvantaged children prepare for school) and job training programs.
The remaining education and training spending goes to veterans’ employment, training, and rehabilitation programs, and to public education and cultural programs that support public broadcasting as well as public libraries and museums.
4. Economic Security
Economic security programs constituted 14 percent ($79 billion) of NDD spending in 2015. Programs in this category primarily help households meet basic needs such as housing, energy, child care, and food costs.
Housing assistance accounts for more than half (55 percent) of the spending in this category, including vouchers and other rental assistance for low-income households, aid for the homeless, and assisted housing for elderly and special-needs populations.
This spending category also covers food and nutrition programs, such as WIC (the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children), which provides food assistance to approximately 9 million low-income mothers and children; and other forms of assistance to low- and moderate-income people, such as the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program, and the Child Care and Development Block Grant. It also covers Social Security’s administrative costs.
5. Science, Environment, and Energy
Science, environment, and energy programs constituted 12 percent ($70 billion) of NDD spending in 2015.
Roughly half of the spending in this category supports conservation and the management of natural resources, such as national parks, and other environmental programs, including those in the Environmental Protection Agency.
One-quarter of the spending covers NASA’s space exploration and related scientific research. Remaining spending supports the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy, and water resources infrastructure.
6. Law Enforcement and Governance
Law enforcement and governance constituted 11 percent ($65 billion) of NDD spending in 2015.
About three-quarters of this category goes for law enforcement, criminal justice, and correctional activities, such as the FBI; the Border Patrol; and assistance to states and localities for prevention and prosecution of domestic violence and reduction of drug trafficking. The rest funds the Internal Revenue Service, Congress, federal courts, the Government Accountability Office, and other basic government operations.
7. Diplomacy and International Affairs
Diplomacy and international affairs constituted 9 percent ($52 billion) of NDD spending in 2015.
Almost half of the spending in this category goes to international development and humanitarian assistance. This subcategory includes disaster assistance, the Peace Corps, the global HIV and AIDS initiative, and contributions to international agencies such as the World Health Organization.
Remaining spending supports international security activities and programs such as peacekeeping operations and efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, and the maintenance and protection of U.S. embassies and consulates.
NDD Spending Projected to Fall as a Share of the Economy
The Budget Control Act has tightly constrained NDD funding. That law, which imposed separate caps on defense and non-defense funding, also mandated further reductions in the caps beginning in 2013 — through a process called “sequestration” — because Congress failed to adopt a more comprehensive deficit reduction plan.
Lawmakers have enacted measures on three occasions providing some relief from sequestration, but this relief has been only partial and temporary. The most recent such legislation, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, covers 2016 and 2017 but expires in 2018.
With these constraints, NDD spending has been declining as a share of the economy since 2010 and is projected to continue to do so (see chart below). Even with the most recent temporary relief, NDD spending in 2018 will reach a record low as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP), with data going back to 1962. The percentage is likely to continue falling in subsequent years.
For more information on non-defense discretionary programs, see CBPP President Robert Greenstein’s statement on the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015: http://www.cbpp.org/press/statements/greenstein-budget-deal-though-imperfect-represents-significant-accomplishment-and
Sequestration and Its Impact on Non-Defense Appropriations: http://www.cbpp.org/research/federal-budget/sequestration-and-its-impact-on-non-defense-appropriations
Even Without Sequestration, Non-Defense Spending Still Headed Toward Historic Low: http://www.cbpp.org/blog/even-without-sequestration-non-defense-spending-still-headed-toward-historic-low
For more information on the budget process, see
Policy Basics: Introduction to the Federal Budget Process: http://www.cbpp.org/research/policy-basics-introduction-to-the-federal-budget-process