Policy Basics: Introduction to Medicaid
June 19, 2015
What Is Medicaid?
Created by Congress in 1965, Medicaid is a public insurance program that provides health coverage to low-income families and individuals, including children, parents, pregnant women, seniors, and people with disabilities. Medicaid is funded jointly by the federal government and the states.
In 2014, Medicaid provided health coverage for 80 million low-income Americans.Each state operates its own Medicaid program within federal guidelines. Because the federal guidelines are broad, states have a great deal of flexibility in designing and administering their programs. As a result, Medicaid eligibility and benefits can and often do vary widely from state to state.
In 2014, Medicaid provided health coverage for 80 million low-income Americans over the course of the year. And in any given month, Medicaid served 31 million children, 19 million adults (mostly low-income working parents), 5 million seniors, and 9 million persons with disabilities, according to Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates.
Children account for nearly half of all Medicaid enrollees but just one-fifth of Medicaid spending. Less than one-quarter of Medicaid enrollees are seniors or persons with disabilities, but because these beneficiaries need more (and more costly) health care services, they account for nearly three-fifths of all Medicaid spending.
Because states have broad flexibility to determine which optional populations they will cover and at what income levels, Medicaid eligibility currently varies significantly from state to state.Health reform has changed some aspects of Medicaid eligibility, coverage, and financing. Namely, states now have the option to expand Medicaid eligibility to poor non-disabled adults without children. For more details, see "How Has Health Reform Affected Medicaid?" below.
Medicaid is sometimes confused with Medicare, the federally administered, federally funded health insurance program for people over 65 and some people with disabilities. Unlike Medicaid, Medicare is not limited to those with low incomes and resources. More than 9 million low-income seniors and people with disabilities -- so-called "dual eligibles" -- are enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid.
Who Is Eligible for Medicaid?
Medicaid is an "entitlement" program, which means that anyone who meets eligibility rules has a right to enroll in Medicaid coverage. It also means that states have guaranteed federal financial support for part of the cost of their Medicaid programs.
In order to receive federal funding, states must cover certain "mandatory" populations:
- children through age 18 in families with income below 133 percent of the federal poverty line ($25,975 for a family of three in 2013);
- pregnant women with income below 133 percent of the poverty line;
- parents whose income is within the state's eligibility limit for cash assistance that was in place prior to welfare reform; and
- most seniors and persons with disabilities who receive cash assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.
States may also receive federal Medicaid funds for the costs of covering additional, "optional" populations, including: pregnant women, children, and parents with income above "mandatory" coverage income limits; seniors and persons with disabilities with income below the poverty line; "medically needy" people -- those whose income exceeds the state's regular Medicaid eligibility limit but who have high medical expenses (such as for nursing home care) that reduce their disposable income below the eligibility limit; and newly under health reform, poor non-disabled adults without children. Because states have broad flexibility to determine which of these groups they will cover and at what income levels, Medicaid eligibility currently varies significantly from state to state. While 28 states and the District of Columbia have expanded Medicaid coverage under health reform to parents and childless adults up to 138 percent of the poverty line, eligibility levels remain low in the remaining states. In the typical non-expansion state, Medicaid eligibility is now limited to working parents with incomes at 45 percent of the poverty line and is not available at any income level to non-disabled adults without children.
Medicaid covers more than 60 percent of all nursing home residents, and it pays 40 percent of the nation's total costs for long-term care services and supports.Not all low-income Americans are eligible for Medicaid. As noted, childless adults -- that is, those over 21 who are not disabled, not pregnant, and not elderly -- are generally not eligible for Medicaid in the 22 states that have not adopted the health reform expansion, no matter how poor they are. In addition, legal immigrants are barred from Medicaid for their first five years in this country, even if they meet all of the program's eligibility requirements.
Medicaid is a counter-cyclical program. In other words, its enrollment expands to meet rising needs during an economic downturn, when people lose their jobs and their job-based health coverage. During the Great Recession and its aftermath, more than 10 million additional people enrolled in Medicaid; more than half were children.
What Services Does Medicaid Cover?
Medicaid does not provide health care directly. Instead, it pays hospitals, physicians, nursing homes, managed care plans, and other health care providers for covered services that they deliver to eligible patients. (Hospitals, physicians, and other health care providers are not required to participate in Medicaid, and not all do.)
About two-thirds of all Medicaid spending on services pays for acute-care services such as hospital care, physician services, and prescription drugs; another 30 percent pays for nursing home and other long-term care services and supports. Medicaid covers more than 60 percent of all nursing home residents, and it pays 40 percent of the nation's total costs for long-term care services and supports.
Medicaid also reimburses certain hospitals for the uncompensated costs they incur when they care for low-income uninsured patients. These payments, known as Disproportionate Share Hospital payments, account for about 4 percent of Medicaid services spending. These figures do not include administrative costs, which equal roughly 6 percent of total Medicaid spending.
Federal rules require state Medicaid programs to cover certain "mandatory" services, such as: physician, midwife, and certified nurse practitioner services; inpatient and outpatient hospital services; laboratory and x-ray services; family planning services and supplies; rural health clinic/federally qualified health center services; nursing facility and home health care for adults over age 21; and Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment (EPSDT) services for children under age 21. EPSDT guarantees that enrollees under age 21 have access to medically necessary services, regardless of whether the state's Medicaid program otherwise covers these services.
States can -- and all do -- cover certain additional services as well. Common examples include prescription drugs, dental care, vision services, hearing aids, and personal care services for the frail elderly and people with disabilities. These services, though listed as "optional" because states are not required to provide them, are critical to meeting the health needs of Medicaid beneficiaries.
It costs Medicaid substantially less than private insurance to cover people of similar health status...due primarily to Medicaid's lower payment rates to providers and lower administrative costs.States have flexibility to determine the amount, duration, and scope of the services they provide under Medicaid (though the services must be sufficient to achieve the purposes of the Medicaid program). For example, states must cover hospital and physician services, but they can limit the number of hospital days or physician visits they pay for. As a result of this flexibility, Medicaid benefits packages vary substantially from state to state.
How Much Does Medicaid Cost? How Is It Financed?
Together, states and the federal government spent about $438 billion on Medicaid services in fiscal year 2013. State policies have a large impact on the amount the federal government spends on Medicaid, not only because states are guaranteed federal Medicaid matching funds for the costs of covered services furnished to eligible individuals, but also because states have broad discretion to determine who is eligible, what services they will cover, and what they will pay for covered services.
Under Medicaid, the federal government contributes at least $1 in matching funds for every $1 a state spends on its Medicaid program, whatever those costs may be. The fixed percentage the federal government pays, known as the "FMAP," varies from state to state, with poorer states receiving larger federal amounts for each dollar they spend than wealthier states. In the poorest states, the federal government pays 73 percent of all Medicaid service costs; the national average is about 57 percent.
Medicaid is a lean program. It costs Medicaid substantially less than private insurance to cover people of similar health status. This is due primarily to Medicaid's lower payment rates to providers and lower administrative costs. And over the past decade, costs per beneficiary grew much more slowly for Medicaid than for employer-sponsored insurance. The Office of the Actuary at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services projects that Medicaid spending per beneficiary will grow no more rapidly through 2023 than spending per beneficiary with private insurance.
Moreover, because Medicaid costs are projected to rise more slowly than it estimated in August 2010, CBO in May 2013 lowered its estimate of projected federal spending on the program between 2011 and 2020 by $445 billion.
How Effective Is Medicaid?
Medicaid has greatly reduced the number of Americans without health insurance. Since the implementation of health reform's coverage expansions in 2014, Medicaid has helped to reduce the number of uninsured Americans from 43 million to 26 million. If Medicaid did not exist, most of the tens of millions of Americans whose health coverage comes solely through Medicaid would join the ranks of the uninsured. This is because private health insurance is generally not an option for Medicaid beneficiaries: many low-income workers do not have access to coverage through their jobs, and they cannot afford to purchase coverage in the individual insurance market.
Medicaid coverage provides low-income Americans with access to needed preventive services and medical care. For example, studies have shown that Medicaid helps patients with chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and asthma receive medical care that can prevent their conditions from worsening. People who have lost Medicaid coverage are two to three times more likely than Medicaid beneficiaries to report going without medical care because they cannot afford it.
Medicaid has helped make millions of Americans healthier by improving access to preventive and primary care and by protecting against (and providing care for) serious diseases.Numerous studies show that Medicaid has helped make millions of Americans healthier by improving access to preventive and primary care and by protecting against (and providing care for) serious diseases (see chart). For example, expansions of Medicaid eligibility for low-income children in the late 1980s and early 1990s led to a 5.1 percent reduction in childhood deaths. Also, expansions of Medicaid coverage for low-income pregnant women led to an 8.5 percent reduction in infant mortality and a 7.8 percent reduction in the incidence of low birth weight.
Notably, a landmark study of Oregon's Medicaid program found that, compared to similar people without coverage, people with Medicaid were more likely to use preventive care, to have a regular office or clinic where they could receive primary care, and to receive diagnosis of and treatment for depression and diabetes, and far less likely to experience catastrophic out-of-pocket medical expenses.
How Has Health Reform Affected Medicaid?
Medicaid plays an even more integral role in insuring low-income Americans now that the health reform law has been fully implemented.
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides coverage for poor and low-income adults by expanding Medicaid to 138 percent of the poverty line ($26,951 for a family of three). The 2012 Supreme Court decision upholding health reform gave states the choice of whether to expand their programs. As of May 2015, 28 states and the District of Columbia have expanded Medicaid to serve poor and low-income adults.
The expansion is a very good financial deal for states. The federal government will pay nearly all of the expansion costs -- 95 percent over the coming ten years (2016-2025) -- according to CBO estimates. That's because the federal government will pick up 100 percent of the cost of the expansion to newly eligible individuals for the first three years and no less than 90 percent of the cost on a permanent basis. And by greatly reducing the number of uninsured, the expansion will enable states and localities to save substantial sums on uncompensated care for the uninsured. States will spend just 1.6 percent more on Medicaid with the expansion than they would have without health reform.
CBO now estimates that by 2025, 14 million more adults and children will enroll in Medicaid and gain access to affordable coverage as a result. If all states adopt the Medicaid expansion, however, significantly more low-income people will enroll in Medicaid coverage.